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Effect Of Quality, Porosity And Density On The Compression Properties Of Cork

O. Anjos, H. Pereira, M. Rosa
Published 2008 · Materials Science

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AbstractThe compression properties of cork were studied on samples obtained from cork planks of two commercial quality classes (good and poor quality), with densities ranging from 0.12–0.20g cm-3 and porosities from 0.5 to 22.0%. The stress-strain curves were characterized by an elastic region up to approximately 5% strain, followed by a large plateau up to 60% strain caused by the progressive buckling of cell walls, and a steep stress increase for higher strains corresponding to cell collapse. The direction of compression was a highly significant factor of variation, with cork showing higher strength for the radial compression. Density influenced compression and cork samples with higher density showed overall larger resistance to compression in the three directions. In the elastic region, an exponential model of Young’s modulus in function of cork density could be adjusted. The effect of porosity on compression was small and the stress-strain curves were similar regardless of the porosity of the samples, although there was a trend toward an overall increase of stress with porosity for higher strains. Porosity was characterised by a high variability in the anatomical features of the lenticular filling material and the presence of collapsed and thick walled lignified cells. The inclusion of a porosity parameter for the modelling of the elastic modulus did not improve the prediction obtained with density-based models. There was no significant difference in the compression properties of cork samples obtained from cork planks of good and poor quality classes. ZusammenfassungUntersucht wurden die Druckeigenschaften von Kork an Proben aus Material zweier handelsüblicher Qualitätsklassen (gute und schlechte Qualität), mit einer Dichte zwischen 0,12 und 0,20 g/cm3 und einer Porosität zwischen 0,5 und 22,0 %. Die Spannungs-Dehnungs-Kurven weisen bis zu ca. 5% Dehnung einen elastischen Bereich auf, gefolgt von einem großen Bereich mit 60% Dehnung aufgrund des Ausbeulens der Zellwände, und einem anschließenden steilen Spannungsanstieg bei höheren Dehnungen aufgrund von Zellkollaps. Die Druckrichtung war ein maßgebender Faktor für die Streuung der Eigenschaften. Bei radialem Druck ergab sich dabei eine höhere Festigkeit. Die Dichte hatte einen Einfluss auf die Druckeigenschaften. Korkproben mit einer höheren Dichte wiesen eine größere Druckfestigkeit in allen drei Richtungen auf. Im elastischen Bereich konnte der E-Modul als Funktion der Korkdichte durch eine Exponentialgleichung beschrieben werden. Der Einfluss der Porosität auf die Druckeigenschaften war gering und die Spannungs-Dehnungs-Kurven wurden durch die Porosität der Proben kaum beeinflusst. Allerdings war bei höheren Dehnungen ein Trend zu insgesamt höherer Spannung mit zunehmender Porosität erkennbar. Die Porosität zeichnet sich durch eine hohe Variabilität der anatomischen Merkmale des Füllmaterials in den Lentizellen sowie des Vorhandenseins kollabierter und dickwandiger lignifizierter Zellen aus. Ein Modell zur Beschreibung des E-Moduls in Abhängigkeit der Dichte konnte durch die Hinzunahme eines Parameters für die Porosität nicht verbessert werden. Die Qualitätsklassen des Korkmaterials hatten keinen signifikanten Einfluss auf die Druckeigenschaften.
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