Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Classification Of Pharyngeal Muscles Based On Innervations From Glossopharyngeal And Vagus Nerves In Human

Y. Sakamoto
Published 2009 · Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
PurposeThe pharyngeal muscles are innervated by the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. However, their spatial interrelationships with the innervating branches have been unclear. This study examined the pharynx to elucidate their precise relationships for the anatomical evidence of the functional diagnosis.MethodThe muscles and nerves were dissected under a binocular microscope in 44 sides of 22 cadavers fixed with 8% formalin.ResultsThe pharyngeal muscles overlapped each other, and the pharyngeal constrictors sometimes linked to adjacent muscles. The uppermost part of the superior constrictor arose from the soft palate, and sometimes contained the fibers attaching to the petrous part of the temporal bone. Anomalous bundles were frequently found between the superior and middle constrictors and the stylopharyngeus. The stylopharyngeus and the glossopharyngeal part of the superior constrictor were innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve, which occasionally penetrated the stylopharyngeus. The pharyngeal plexus not only spread onto dorsolateral surface of the pharynx but also sent branches between the constrictors. The plexus supplied the superior constrictor and salpingo- and palatopharyngei from their dorsal surface and the middle and inferior constrictors from their ventral and dorsal surfaces. The inferior constrictor received additional innervations from the laryngeal nerves.ConclusionsThe innervations pattern suggests that the pharyngeal muscles comprise four groups: the first innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve, the second and third by the pharyngeal plexus, and the fourth by the plexus and the laryngeal nerves. The stylopharyngeus descends between the second and third groups, and its penetration may cause the anomalous bundles between them.
This paper references
10.1016/S0002-9343(99)00337-X
Functional anatomy and physiology of the upper esophageal sphincter.
D. V. Sivarao (2000)
10.5694/j.1326-5377.1930.tb41402.x
Gray's Anatomy
H. Gray (1858)
10.1016/0168-0102(95)01016-5
The sites of origin and termination of afferent and efferent components in the lingual and pharyngeal branches of the glossopharyngeal nerve in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata)
T. Satoda (1996)
10.1016/S0002-9343(99)00335-6
Understanding the motor innervation of the human cricopharyngeus muscle.
C. Sasaki (2000)
10.1002/AR.1092280214
An HRP study of location of the rabbit palatopharyngeal motoneurons and peripheral course of their axons
S. Kitamura (1990)
10.1016/0304-3940(85)90173-9
Localization of motoneurons innervating the stylopharyngeus muscle in the cat
H. V. Loveren (1985)
10.1097/00001622-199905000-00006
Head and neck
A. Forastiere (1999)
10.1177/000348940711600809
Neuromuscular Specializations within Human Pharyngeal Constrictor Muscles
L. Mu (2007)
10.1002/AR.1092290312
Location of the motoneurons supplying the rabbit pharyngeal constrictor muscles and the peripheral course of their axons: A study using the retrograde HRP or fluorescent labeling technique
S. Kitamura (1991)
Compendium of human anatomic variation : text, atlas, and world literature
R. A. Bergman (1988)
10.1002/AR.1092370111
Nucleus ambiguus of the rabbit: Cytoarchitectural subdivision and myotopical and neurotopic representations
S. Kitamura (1993)
Observation of the petropharyngeal muscle in Japanese.
K. Shimada (1991)
10.1007/s00276-003-0183-1
An anatomical study of the levator veli palatini and superior constrictor with special reference to their nerve supply
T. Shimokawa (2003)
10.1111/j.1365-2982.2005.00662.x
The upper oesophageal sphincter
S. Singh (2005)
10.1016/S0002-9343(97)00323-9
Anatomy and physiology of the upper esophageal sphincter.
I. M. Lang (1997)
10.1097/00007611-193711000-00026
CUNNINGHAM'S TEXTBOOK OF ANATOMY
C. Schofield (1972)
10.1097/00001888-193705000-00030
Cunningham's Textbook of Anatomy
E. Crelin (1965)
10.2535/OFAJ1936.65.5_291
Neurons of origin of the internal ramus of the rabbit accessory nerve: localization in the nucleus ambiguus.
S. Kitamura (1988)
10.1016/0889-5406(89)90418-6
Sicher and Dubrul's:Oral anatomy
H. Sicher (1988)
An HRP study of the central localization of the rabbit stylopharyngeal motoneurons and the peripheral courses of their axons.
S. Kitamura (1988)
Gray's Anatomy for Students
R. Drake (2004)
10.1002/AR.1091370204
Observations on an unusual case of bilateral platysmo‐pharyngeal muscular inter‐connections in man
H. K. Suzuki (1960)



This paper is referenced by
10.1111/1346-8138.14942
Case of herpes zoster complicated with paralysis of the recurrent and glossopharyngeal nerves
A. Shibata (2019)
10.1002/ca.22344
Gross anatomical observations of attachments of the middle pharyngeal constrictor
Y. Sakamoto (2014)
10.3121/cmr.2018.1452
A Case of Isolated Unilateral Glossopharyngeal Nerve Palsy
Monisha K Savarimuthu (2020)
10.1007/s00405-016-4369-7
The functional role of the pharyngeal plexus in vocal cord innervation in humans
M. Uludag (2016)
Soft Palate and Its Motor Innervation: A Brief Review
L. Mu (2019)
10.1007/s00276-015-1444-5
Spatial relationship between the palatopharyngeus and the superior constrictor of the pharynx
Y. Sakamoto (2015)
10.1002/brb3.619
Morphological relationship between the superior cervical ganglion and cervical nerves in Japanese cadaver donors
Kazuyuki Mitsuoka (2017)
10.1016/j.jvoice.2013.02.011
Pharyngolaryngeal involvement by varicella-zoster virus.
L. Nisa (2013)
10.1097/SCS.0000000000000977
Salpingopharyngeus Myomucosal Flap
Ramazan Gun (2014)
10.1002/ar.23924
Morphological Features of the Glossopharyngeal Nerve in the Peripharyngeal Space, the Oropharynx, and the Tongue
Y. Sakamoto (2019)
10.5631/JIBIRINSUPPL.149.42
Two Cases of Vocal Cord Paralysis Originating from Infection with Varicella Zoster Virus
Hiroki Tanaka (2017)
10.1007/s00276-013-1162-9
Surgical anatomy of the styloid muscles and the extracranial glossopharyngeal nerve
J. Prades (2013)
10.1007/s10143-020-01303-5
The pharyngeal plexus: an anatomical review for better understanding postoperative dysphagia
S. Gutiérrez (2020)
10.1002/ca.21233
Gross anatomical study of the human palatopharyngeus muscle throughout its entire course from origin to insertion
K. Sumida (2012)
10.1007/s00276-013-1102-8
Interrelationships between the innervations from the laryngeal nerves and the pharyngeal plexus to the inferior pharyngeal constrictor
Y. Sakamoto (2013)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar