Recent Developments In Carbon-based Two-dimensional Materials: Synthesis And Modification Aspects For Electrochemical Sensors
This review (162 references) focuses on two-dimensional carbon materials, which include graphene as well as its allotropes varying in size, number of layers, and defects, for their application in electrochemical sensors. Many preparation methods are known to yield two-dimensional carbon materials which are often simply addressed as graphene, but which show huge variations in their physical and chemical properties and therefore on their sensing performance. The first section briefly reviews the most promising as well as the latest achievements in graphene synthesis based on growth and delamination techniques, such as chemical vapor deposition, liquid phase exfoliation via sonication or mechanical forces, as well as oxidative procedures ranging from chemical to electrochemical exfoliation. Two-dimensional carbon materials are highly attractive to be integrated in a wide field of sensing applications. Here, graphene is examined as recognition layer in electrochemical sensors like field-effect transistors, chemiresistors, impedance-based devices as well as voltammetric and amperometric sensors. The sensor performance is evaluated from the material’s perspective of view and revealed the impact of structure and defects of the 2D carbon materials in different transducing technologies. It is concluded that the performance of 2D carbon-based sensors is strongly related to the preparation method in combination with the electrical transduction technique. Future perspectives address challenges to transfer 2D carbon-based sensors from the lab to the market.