Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

An Updated Italian Normative Dataset For The Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT)

Andrea Brugnolo, Fabrizio De Carli, Jennifer Accardo, Mario Amore, L. E. Bosia, C. Bruzzaniti, Stefano F. Cappa, Leonardo Cocito, Giorgio Colazzo, Monica Ferrara, Lucio Ghio, Enzio Magi, Giovanni Luigi Mancardi, Federica Nobili, Matteo Pardini, Roberto Rissotto, Carlo Serrati, Nicola Girtler
Published 2015 · Medicine, Psychology
Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
The Stroop color and word test (SCWT) is widely used to evaluate attention, information processing speed, selective attention, and cognitive flexibility. Normative values for the Italian population are available only for selected age groups, or for the short version of the test. The aim of this study was to provide updated normal values for the full version, balancing groups across gender, age decades, and education. Two kinds of indexes were derived from the performance of 192 normal subjects, divided by decade (from 20 to 90) and level of education (4 levels: 3–5; 6–8; 9–13; >13 years). They were (i) the correct answers achieved for each table in the first 30 s (word items, WI; color items, CI; color word items, CWI) and (ii) the total time required for reading the three tables (word time, WT; color time, CT; color word time, CWT). For each index, the regression model was evaluated using age, education, and gender as independent variables. The normative data were then computed following the equivalent scores method. In the regression model, age and education significantly influenced the performance in each of the 6 indexes, whereas gender had no significant effect. This study confirms the effect of age and education on the main indexes of the Stroop test and provides updated normative data for an Italian healthy population, well balanced across age, education, and gender. It will be useful to Italian researchers studying attentional functions in health and disease.
This paper references
10.3233/JAD-141449
Development and psychometric properties of a neuropsychological battery for mild cognitive impairment with small vessel disease: the VMCI-Tuscany Study.
Emilia Salvadori (2015)
Basic Functions for Power Analysis
Stephane Champely (2015)
Interference effects of Stroop color-word test in childhood, adulthood, and aging
PE JrComalli (1962)
Gait control and executive Table 5 Equivalent scores for six indexes (age- and education-corrected scores) Equivalent score WT range WI range CT range CI range CWT range CWI range
E Lallart (2014)
10.1080/01688639708403869
Color-Word Stroop test performance across the adult life span.
Bob Uttl (1997)
10.1007/BF00831566
A normative study on visual reaction times and two Stroop colour-word tests
Riccardo Barbarotto (2004)
10.1177/1352458506070933
The Rao’s Brief Repeatable Battery and Stroop test: normative values with age, education and gender corrections in an Italian population
Maria Pia Amato (2006)
10.1080/00221325.1962.10533572
Interference effects of Stroop color-word test in childhood, adulthood, and aging.
Peter E. Comalli (1962)
Standardizazione e taratura italiana di test neuropsicologici
Henri Spinnler (1987)
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.10.028
The neural mechanisms of semantic and response conflicts: An fMRI study of practice-related effects in the Stroop task
Zhencai Chen (2013)
Hertfordshire Neuro- science Research group
CJ Hawley (2002)
10.1162/jocn.2008.20074
Examining a Supramodal Network for Conflict Processing: A Systematic Review and Novel Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data for Related Visual and Auditory Stroop Tasks
Katherine L. Roberts (2008)
10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2006.05.008
Stroop interference, hemodynamic response and aging: An event-related fMRI study
Stefan Zysset (2007)
10.1016/j.schres.2011.08.025
Impaired cognitive inhibition in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of the Stroop interference effect
René Westerhausen (2011)
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.02.033
Common and distinct neural substrates of attentional control in an integrated Simon and spatial Stroop task as assessed by event-related fMRI
Xun Dao Liu (2004)
10.1007/s00702-013-1111-0
Gait control and executive dysfunction in early schizophrenia
Elise Lallart (2013)
10.1037/h0054651
Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions
Jürgen Stroop (1992)
10.1093/brain/awh045
Inhibitory functioning in Alzheimer's disease.
Hélène Amieva (2004)
10.1002/gps.2027
Normative study of the Stroop Color and Word Test in an educationally diverse elderly population.
Eun Hyun Seo (2008)
Una versione abbreviata del test di Stroop: dati normativi nella popolazione italiana
Paolo Caffarra (2002)
10.1212/WNL.0b013e31828407bc
Structural and functional brain connectivity in presymptomatic familial frontotemporal dementia
Elise G. P. Dopper (2013)
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.092
Calibrated fMRI during a cognitive Stroop task reveals reduced metabolic response with increasing age
Rafat S. Mohtasib (2012)
10.1016/S0165-0327(01)00451-7
Defining remission by cut off score on the MADRS: selecting the optimal value.
Chris J. Hawley (2002)
10.1037/0033-2909.121.1.65
Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD.
Russell A Barkley (1997)
I 1 ‘ ‘ ColourWord Test ’ ’ o Test di Stroop
R Venturini (1983)
10.1007/s10072-010-0438-7
Treatment options of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis
Francesco Patti (2010)
10.1136/jnnp.72.2.217
Executive dysfunction in subcortical ischaemic vascular disease
Joel H. Kramer (2002)
10.1007/978-1-4612-0919-5_38
Information Theory and an Extension of the Maximum Likelihood Principle
Hirotugu Akaike (1973)
10.1214/aoms/1177731788
Determination of Sample Sizes for Setting Tolerance Limits
S. S. Wilks (1941)
10.1192/bjp.134.4.382
A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change.
Stuart A. Montgomery (1979)
10.1016/j.pscychresns.2003.10.002
The Danish PET/depression project: Performance on Stroop's test linked to white matter lesions in the brain
Poul Videbech (2004)
10.1016/j.clineuro.2011.02.013
Outcome measures for traumatic brain injury
Dhaval Shukla (2011)
10.3758/BF03206482
AIC model selection using Akaike weights
Eric-Jan Wagenmakers (2004)
10.1007/s10072-008-0970-x
Twenty years after Spinnler and Tognoni: new instruments in the Italian neuropsychologist’s toolbox
Angelo Bianchi (2008)
10.1073/pnas.0606265103
Anterior cingulate cortex activity can be independent of response conflict in Stroop-like tasks
Ardi Roelofs (2006)
10.1037/0096-1523.3.3.444
Inhibitory and facilitatory processes in selective attention.
W. Trammell Neill (1977)
10.2307/2290095
Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.)
Peter A. Lachenbruch (1989)
10.1016/j.archger.2009.09.040
Adult age differences in the Color Stroop Test: a comparison between an Item-by-item and a Blocked version.
C Ludwig (2010)
10.1037/a0016792
Executive functions in frontotemporal dementia and Lewy body dementia.
Erin Johns (2009)
10.1002/eat.20203
Stroop interference task and single-photon emission tomography in anorexia: a preliminary report.
Antonio Maria Ferro (2005)
10.2307/2529115
Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences
Jacob Cohen (1969)
10.1080/13803395.2011.559157
Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test–Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test–Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version
Marc A. Norman (2011)



This paper is referenced by
10.1016/j.cgh.2019.11.018
Combined Scores from the EncephalApp Stroop Test, Number Connection Test-B, and Serial Dotting Test Accurately Identify Patients with Covert Hepatic Encephalopathy.
Xin Zeng (2019)
10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02745
A New Standardization of the Bells Test: An Italian Multi-Center Normative Study
Mauro Mancuso (2019)
10.1093/arclin/acz049
Trail Making Test, Stroop, and Verbal Fluency: Regression-Based Norms for the Icelandic Population.
Brynja B Magnusdottir (2019)
10.2174/1567205016666190506141733
Connected Speech Deficit as an Early Hallmark of CSF-defined Alzheimer's Disease and Correlation with Cerebral Hypoperfusion Pattern.
Giulia Mazzon (2019)
10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00557
The Stroop Color and Word Test
Federica Scarpina (2017)
10.1016/j.comppsych.2018.01.011
Self-reported inhibition predicts history of suicide attempts in bipolar disorder and major depression.
André Ponsoni (2018)
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STROOP TEST PERFORMANCE BETWEEN ELDERLY PEOPLE (65 & ABOVE YRS) AND ADOLESCENT PEOPLE (13-18YRS).
Binita devi Naorem (2019)
10.1007/s10072-016-2732-5
Multifocal cognitive dysfunction in high-dose benzodiazepine users: a cross-sectional study
Angela Federico (2016)
10.1007/s00702-019-01996-z
Olfaction and taste in Parkinson’s disease: the association with mild cognitive impairment and the single cognitive domain dysfunction
Maria Paola Cecchini (2019)
10.1007/s10072-018-3673-y
Regression-based normative data and equivalent scores for Trail Making Test (TMT): an updated Italian normative study
Mattia Siciliano (2018)
10.1007/s10072-019-04154-1
ALS Cognitive Behavioral Screen (ALS-CBS): normative values for the Italian population and clinical usability
Lucio Tremolizzo (2019)
10.1007/s10072-020-04290-z
Insight in frontotemporal dementia and progressive supranuclear palsy
Andrea Plutino (2020)
10.1007/s10072-017-2817-9
VRT (verbal reasoning test): a new test for assessment of verbal reasoning. Test realization and Italian normative data from a multicentric study
Benedetta Basagni (2017)
10.3389/fnins.2020.00747
Detoxification Improves Multidomain Cognitive Dysfunction in High-Dose Benzodiazepine Abusers
Angela Federico (2020)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar