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ECM In Differentiation: A Review Of Matrix Structure, Composition And Mechanical Properties
Abinash Padhi, Amrinder S. Nain
Published 2019 · Biology, Medicine
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Stem cell regenerative potential owing to the capacity to self-renew as well as differentiate into other cell types is a promising avenue in regenerative medicine. Stem cell niche not only provides physical scaffolding but also possess instructional capacity as it provides a milieu of biophysical and biochemical cues. Extracellular matrix (ECM) has been identified as a major dictator of stem cell lineage, thus understanding the structure of in vivo ECM pertaining to specific tissue differentiation will aid in devising in vitro strategies to improve the differentiation efficiency. In this review, we summarize details about the native architecture, composition and mechanical properties of in vivo ECM of the early embryonic stages and the later adult stages. Native ECM from adult tissues categorized on their origin from respective germ layers are discussed while engineering techniques employed to facilitate differentiation of stem cells into particular lineages are noted. Overall, we emphasize that in vitro strategies need to integrate tissue specific ECM biophysical cues for developing accurate artificial environments for optimizing stem cell differentiation.
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