Epigenetic Modifications In Head And Neck Cancer
Jadwiga Gaździcka, Karolina Gołąbek, Joanna Katarzyna Strzelczyk, Zofia Ostrowska
Published 2019 · Biology, Medicine
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Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common human malignancy in the world, with high mortality and poor prognosis for patients. Among the risk factors are tobacco and alcohol intake, human papilloma virus, and also genetic and epigenetic modifications. Many studies show that epigenetic events play an important role in HNSCC development and progression, including DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone posttranslational covalent modifications, and effects of non-coding RNA. Epigenetic modifications may influence silencing of tumor suppressor genes by promoter hypermethylation, regulate transcription by microRNAs and changes in chromatin structure, or induce genome instability through hypomethylation. Moreover, getting to better understand aberrant patterns of methylation may provide biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis, while knowledge about target genes of microRNAs may improve the therapy of HNSCC and extend overall survival. The aim of this review is to present recent studies which demonstrate the role of epigenetic regulation in the development of HNSCC.
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