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Genotoxicity Assessment Of Two Common Curing Weeds: Hyptis Suaveolens (L.) Poir. And Leucas Indica (L.) R. Br.

K. Sumitha, J. E. Thoppil
Published 2016 · Biology, Medicine

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Hyptis suaveolens and Leucas indica, two common weeds were selected for the present study, to reveal their probable cytotoxic potential. The meristematic root tips of Allium cepa were used for testing the cytotoxic property of the aqueous leaf extracts containing both polar and non-polar compounds, and that containing polar compounds alone, at different concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 %) and at different time durations, using distilled water as negative control. Mitotic squash preparations were made using a standard protocol. The mitotic index of the treated root tip cells was found to be decreasing and the abnormality percentage was found to be increasing with increase in extract concentration when compared with the control. Maximum cytotoxicity was observed in the extract containing both polar and non-polar compounds. Both the tested plants were found to be cytotoxic. The abnormalities noticed were of both clastogenic (nuclear lesions, nuclear fragmentation, etc.) and non-clastogenic (aberrant cell wall formation at cytokinesis, ball metaphase, etc.) types. Both plant extracts were found to significantly (P < 0.05) inhibit root growth of Allium cepa with an EC50 value of 1.92 % (R2 = 0.594) for Hyptis and 1.58 % (R2 = 0.757) for Leucas. The results were also analysed statistically by using analysis of variance followed by appropriate post hoc tests. These two weeds are aromatic plants comprising of essential oils that are volatile, natural complex compounds characterized by a strong odour and formed as secondary metabolites. In nature, essential oils play an important role in the protection of the plants as insecticides by reducing their appetite for such plants. When specifically targeted the concept of effectively exploiting these weeds for the formulation of herbal insecticides/pesticides may be possible in the near future.
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