Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Orally Administered Therapeutic Peptide Delivery: Enhanced Absorption Through The Small Intestine Using Permeation Enhancers

V. Pillay, Angus R. Hibbins, Y. Choonara, L. D. Toit, P. Kumar, V. Ndesendo
Published 2012 · Chemistry

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Peptide therapeutics (PTs) is generally regarded as highly effective macromolecule therapeutics at very low concentrations. The main issues surrounding the administration of PTs is guaranteeing that they are bioavailable, reach the desired therapeutic index and distribute throughout the body effectively. The oral administration, a non-invasive route, of PTs is considered a major complication due to inadequate oral absorption through biological membranes such as the small intestine epithelium due to presystemic proteolytic enzymatic activity. PTs bioavailability is further diminished in the systemic circulation due to low stability in the plasma and rapid excretion from the body. Many alternative routes can be considered non-invasive such as transdermal and nasal routes, but this review focuses on the oral route, specifically the small intestine region of the gastrointestinal tract. Although this region has the highest density of proteolytic enzymes, it contains tight junctions which have the lowest trans-epithelial electrical resistance throughout the body; thus paracellular transport of these large PTs can be achieved more readily. The use of a natural polysaccharide polymer, such as trimethyl chitosan (TMC), which enhances the bioavailability of these PTs through the small intestine, will also be discussed in great detail. TMC has been considered because it could potentially solve many of the mechanistic and chemical problems associated with oral therapeutic peptide administration. The safety of orally administered PTs through the small intestinal epithelium employing a polymer such as TMC is also discussed as this is a significant issue for regulatory bodies.
This paper references
Novel peptide therapeutics for treatment of infections.
P. Oyston (2009)
Physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of N-trimethyl chitosan: effect of quaternization and dimethylation.
Anchalee Jintapattanakit (2008)
A Novel Strategy for the Enhancement of Drug Absorption Using a Claudin Modulator
M. Kondoh (2005)
Gastric mucus gel layer thickness measured by direct light microscopy. An experimental study in the rat.
B. Sandzén (1988)
Effect of degree of quaternization of N-trimethyl chitosan chloride for enhanced transport of hydrophilic compounds across intestinal caco-2 cell monolayers.
M. Thanou (2000)
Purification and Characterization of Human Chitotriosidase, a Novel Member of the Chitinase Family of Proteins (*)
G. H. Renkema (1995)
Confocal microscopic analysis of transport mechanisms of insulin across the cell monolayer.
Nikhil J. Kavimandan (2008)
Colon-specific delivery and enhanced colonic absorption of [Asu1,7]-eel calcitonin using chitosan capsules containing various additives in rats
G. Fetih (2006)
Preparation and efficacy of tumor vasculature‐targeted doxorubicin cationic liposomes coated by N‐trimethyl chitosan
Xianxi Guo (2011)
Preparation and characterization of protein-loaded N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles as nasal delivery system.
M. Amidi (2006)
Flux measurements across Caco-2 monolayers may predict transport in human large intestinal tissue.
W. Rubas (1996)
Antimicrobial Peptides
A. Bahar (2013)
Dynamics and functions of tight junctions.
Emily Steed (2010)
Paracellin-1, a renal tight junction protein required for paracellular Mg2+ resorption.
D. B. Simón (1999)
Translating peptides into small molecules.
G. Hummel (2006)
New method for the quaternization of chitosan
A. Domard (1986)
Dissolution Media Simulating Conditions in the Proximal Human Gastrointestinal Tract: An Update
E. Jantratid (2008)
Occludin phosphorylation: identification of an occludin kinase in brain and cell extracts as CK2
C. Smales (2003)
Reversible Increase in Tight Junction Permeability to Macromolecules in Rat Ileal Mucosa In Vitro by Sodium Caprate, a Constituent of Milk Fat
J. Soderholm (2004)
Trimethylated chitosans as non-viral gene delivery vectors: cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency.
T. Kean (2005)
Modification of nanostructured materials for biomedical applications
T. Xu (2007)
Cyclodextrins inhibit peptide degradation by intestinal brush border but not luminal enzymes
JF Woodley (1994)
Absorption-enhancing mechanism of EDTA, caprate, and decanoylcarnitine in Caco-2 cells.
M. Tomita (1996)
Preparation, characterisation and preliminary antitumour activity evaluation of a novel nanoparticulate system based on a cisplatin-hyaluronate complex and N-trimethyl chitosan
S. Cafaggi (2009)
A simple method for measuring thickness of the mucus gel layer adherent to rat, frog and human gastric mucosa: influence of feeding, prostaglandin, N-acetylcysteine and other agents.
S. Kerss (1982)
A new hemostatic agent: initial life-saving experience with Celox (chitosan) in cardiothoracic surgery.
R. Millner (2009)
The thickness of the mucus layer in different segments of the rat intestine
L. Szentkuti (1995)
Chitosan therefore can act as a functional component in environments such as the stomach and ocular fluid but presents a problem for the small intestine. The small intestine has a pH
Thanou (2011)
Barrier properties of mucus.
Richard A. Cone (2009)
Gut instincts: explorations in intestinal physiology and drug delivery.
E. McConnell (2008)
Evaluation of the Mucoadhesive Properties of N-Trimethyl Chitosan Chloride
D. Snyman (2003)
Phage display-derived peptides as therapeutic alternatives to antibodies.
R. C. Ladner (2004)
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin binds to the second extracellular loop of claudin‐3, a tight junction integral membrane protein
K. Fujita (2000)
Ion and Water Transport in the Intestine
D. Powell (1987)
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin fragment removes specific claudins from tight junction strands : Evidence for direct involvement of claudins in tight junction barrier
園田 紀之 (2002)
The role of mucoadhesion of trimethyl chitosan and PEGylated trimethyl chitosan nanocomplexes in insulin uptake.
Anchalee Jintapattanakit (2009)
Effects of N-trimethyl chitosan chloride, a novel absorption enhancer, on caco-2 intestinal epithelia and the ciliary beat frequency of chicken embryo trachea.
M. Thanou (1999)
Chitosans as absorption enhancers of poorly absorbable drugs. 3: Influence of mucus on absorption enhancement.
N. G. Schipper (1999)
Peptide-based treatment for neurodegenerative diseases
D Tshala-Katumbay (2010)
Bile salts
J. Lucy (1979)
Center for devices and radiological health (CDRH)'s approval of Celox topical hemostatic granules as a medical device (K061079). Docstoc
J Ranfeild (2006)
Influence of the degree of acetylation on the enzymatic degradation and in vitro biological properties of trimethylated chitosans.
R. Verheul (2009)
Antimicrobial peptides: an overview of a promising class of therapeutics
A. Giuliani (2007)
In vitro and in vivo study of N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles for oral protein
F Chen (2008)
Trimethyl chitosan chloride
IM Van der Lubben (2002)
Nitric oxide donors can enhance the intestinal transport and absorption of insulin and [Asu(1,7)]-eel calcitonin in rats.
G. Fetih (2005)
Protein Kinase C Regulates the Phosphorylation and Cellular Localization of Occludin*
A. Y. Andreeva (2001)
Functional dissociation of paracellular permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance and disruption of the apical- basolateral intramembrane diffusion barrier by expression of a mutant tight junction membrane protein
M. Balda (1996)
Claudin-8 Expression in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells Augments the Paracellular Barrier to Cation Permeation*
A. Yu (2003)
Chitosan and trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) as adjuvants for inducing immune responses to ovalbumin in mice following nasal administration.
Worawan Boonyo (2007)
Controlled delivery of peptides and proteins.
I. T. Değim (2007)
Microbial factories for recombinant pharmaceuticals
N. Ferrer-Miralles (2009)
Hormone replacement therapy: a 2008 perspective
A. MacLennan (2009)
Claudin-2 expression induces cation-selective channels in tight junctions of epithelial cells
S. Amasheh (2002)
Overcoming paracellular tissue barriers for drug delivery
PV Paranjpe (2002)
Vibrio cholera produces a second
JM (1991)
Intestinal Absorption of Octreotide Using Trimethyl Chitosan Chloride: Studies in Pigs
M. Thanou (2004)
Intestinal fluid volumes and transit of dosage forms as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging
C. Schiller (2005)
Bioidentical hormones for maturing women.
J. Chervenak (2009)
The enhancement of the bioadhesive properties of calcium alginate gel beads by coating with chitosan
O. Gåserød (1998)
Osteoporosis in men.
J. M. Campion (2003)
In vitro and in vivo study of N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles for oral protein delivery.
Fu Chen (2008)
Absorption enhancement through intracellular regulation of tight junction permeability by medium chain fatty acids in Caco-2 cells.
T. Lindmark (1998)
Pharmacokinetics and drug distribution during postnatal development.
B. Assael (1982)
Effects of different N-trimethyl chitosans on in vitro/in vivo ofloxacin transcorneal permeation.
G. Di Colo (2004)
Trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) as a novel excipient for oral and nasal immunisation against diphtheria
I. M. V. D. Lubben (2002)
Mono-N-carboxymethyl chitosan (MCC) and Ntrimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles for non-invasive vaccine
B Sayin (2008)
Intestinal permeation enhancers.
B. Aungst (2000)
A new principle for tight junction modulation based on occludin peptides.
S. Tavelin (2003)
Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Yes interacts with occludin during tight junction formation in canine kidney epithelial cells.
Y. Chen (2002)
In vitro assessments of nanomaterial toxicity.
Clinton F Jones (2009)
Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity of poly(ethylene glycol)-graft-trimethyl chitosan block copolymers.
S. Mao (2005)
An Experimental Study in the Rat
A. Alwmark (1986)
Hormone replacement therapy.
J. M. Grant (1997)
Comparison of absorption-enhancing effect between sodium caprate and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate in Caco-2 cells.
M. Tomita (1994)
Human zonulin, a potential modulator of intestinal tight junctions.
W. Wang (2000)
Mechanisms of absorption enhancement by medium chain fatty acids in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers.
T. Lindmark (1995)
Teriparatide: a review.
E. Quattrocchi (2004)
Chitosan and its derivatives as intestinal absorption enhancers.
M. Thanou (2001)
Potential use of tight junction modulators to reversibly open membranous barriers and improve drug delivery.
M. Deli (2009)
Possible Involvement of Phosphorylation of Occludin in Tight Junction Formation
A. Sakakibara (1997)
Design, synthesis, characterization and in‐vivo activity of a novel salmon calcitonin conjugate containing a novel PEG‐lipid moiety
W. Cheng (2010)
The use of biopharmaceutic classification of drugs in drug discovery and development: current status and future extension
H. Lennernäs (2005)
Vibrio cholerae produces a second enterotoxin, which affects intestinal tight junctions.
A. Fasano (1991)
Biodegradation, biodistribution and toxicity of chitosan.
T. Kean (2010)
Asymmetry at the molecular level in biology
L. Johnson (2005)
Enhancement of bronchial octreotide absorption by chitosan and N-trimethyl chitosan shows linear in vitro/in vivo correlation.
B. Florea (2006)
Parathyroid hormone: a new treatment option for osteoporosis
C Simonelli (2002)
Treatment of menopausal symptoms: what shall we do now?
M. Hickey (2005)
Preparation of half-deacetylated chitosan by forced penetration and its properties
Yong-Qin Zhang (2006)
Is the oral route possible for peptide and protein drug delivery?
M. Morishita (2006)
A Synthetic Peptide Corresponding to the Extracellular Domain of Occludin Perturbs the Tight Junction Permeability Barrier
V. Wong (1997)
3D Spheroid Culture Systems for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Dormancy Studies and Anti-Cancer Therapeutics Development.
A. Hsiao (2011)
Structural organization of the tight junctions.
Luca Paris (2008)
Cloning of a cDNA Encoding Chitotriosidase, a Human Chitinase Produced by Macrophages (*)
R. Boot (1995)
Gastrointestinal transit time of nondisintegrating radio-opaque pellets in suckling and recently weaned piglets.
V. Snoeck (2004)
PTs or gene therapeutics and chemotherapeutic compounds (Cafaggi et al
Guo (2011)
N,N,N-Trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles for the delivery of monoclonal antibodies against hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
P. Vongchan (2011)
Industrial-scale manufacturing of pharmaceutical-grade bioactive peptides.
D. Agyei (2011)
An investigation into the role of mucus thickness on mucoadhesion in the gastrointestinal tract of pig.
F. J. O. Varum (2010)
Exploring the Factors Affecting the Solubility of Chitosan in Water
Ioannis A Sogias (2010)
Cyclodextrins as Mucosal Absorption Promoters of Insulin. II. Effects of β-Cyclodextrin Derivatives on α-Chymotryptic Degradation and Enteral Absorption of Insulin in Rats
Z. Shao (2004)
Peptide synthesis: chemical or enzymatic
F. Guzmán (2007)
Identification of a Novel Acidic Mammalian Chitinase Distinct from Chitotriosidase*
R. Boot (2001)
Claudin multigene family encoding four-transmembrane domain protein components of tight junction strands.
K. Morita (1999)
Tight junction modulation and its relationship to drug delivery.
N. Salama (2006)
A comparison of the permeation enhancement potential of simple bile salt and mixed bile salt:fatty acid micellar systems using the CaCo-2 cell culture model.
C. Meaney (2000)
Direct Binding of Three Tight Junction-Associated Maguks, Zo-1, Zo-2, and Zo-3, with the Cooh Termini of Claudins
M. Itoh (1999)
Chitosan functional properties
R. Shepherd (2004)
Therapeutic peptides: technological advances driving peptides into development.
A. K. Sato (2006)
Mono-N-carboxymethyl chitosan (MCC) and N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles for non-invasive vaccine delivery.
B. Sayin (2008)
Int J Pept Res Ther
Bioidentical hormone therapy: a review
L. Boothby (2004)
Protein kinase inhibitors prevent junction dissociation induced by low extracellular calcium in MDCK epithelial cells
S. Citi (1992)
Mechanisms of absorption enhancement and tight junction regulation
J. Hochman (1994)
Conformational characterization of quaternized chitosan
D Snyman (2004)
Peptides as Drugs: Is There a Market?
A. Loffet (2002)
Design and evaluation of chitosan films for transdermal delivery of glimepiride.
H. Ammar (2008)
Modulation of intestinal tight junctions
A Fasano (1997)
Modulation of intestinal permeability by nitric oxide donors: implications in intestinal delivery of poorly absorbable drugs.
A. Yamamoto (2001)
Acidic Mammalian Chitinase Is Secreted via an ADAM17/Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-dependent Pathway and Stimulates Chemokine Production by Pulmonary Epithelial Cells*
D. Hartl (2008)
Occludin is a functional component of the tight junction.
K. McCarthy (1996)
Effect of Thiolated Polymers to Textural and Mucoadhesive Properties of Vaginal Gel Formulations Prepared with Polycarbophil and Chitosan
E. Cevher (2008)
The safety of chitosan as a pharmaceutical excipient.
P. Baldrick (2010)
Multiple domains of occludin are involved in the regulation of paracellular permeability
M. Balda (2000)
Sodium caprate
Masuyama (2005)
ZO-3, a Novel Member of the MAGUK Protein Family Found at the Tight Junction, Interacts with ZO-1 and Occludin
Julie Haskins (1998)
Chitosans as Absorption Enhancers for Poorly Absorbable Drugs. 1: Influence of Molecular Weight and Degree of Acetylation on Drug Transport Across Human Intestinal Epithelial (Caco-2) Cells
N. G. Schipper (2004)
The gastroduodenal mucus barrier and its role in protection against luminal pepsins: The effect of 16,16 dimethyl prostaglandin E2, carbopol‐polyacrylate, sucralfate and bismuth subsalicylate
M. Copeman (1994)
A new role for bicarbonate in mucus formation.
Eric Y. T. Chen (2010)
Cingulin Contains Globular and Coiled-Coil Domains and Interacts with Zo-1, Zo-2, Zo-3, and Myosin
M. Cordenonsi (1999)
Large-scale manufacture of peptide therapeutics by chemical synthesis
By G. L. Bray (2003)
Effect of the degree of quaternization of N-trimethyl chitosan chloride on the permeability of intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2).
A. Kotzé (1999)
Les médicaments peptidiques : mythe ou réalité ?
M. Decaffmeyer (2008)
Role of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase in Oxidative Stress-induced Disruption of Tight Junctions*
P. Sheth (2003)
Enhancing paracellular permeability by modulating epithelial tight junctions.
Ward (2000)
Enhancement of nasal and intestinal calcitonin delivery by the novel Pheroid fatty acid based delivery system, and by N-trimethyl chitosan chloride.
L. D. du Plessis (2010)
Tight junctions and tight junction proteins in mammalian epidermis.
J. Brandner (2009)
Regional permeability of salmon calcitonin in isolated rat gastrointestinal tracts: Transport mechanism using Caco-2 cell monolayer
R. Shah (2008)
Physiology of Membrane Disorders
T. Andreoli (1986)
Claudins in occluding junctions
M Furuse (2006)
Role of N-Terminal Amino Acids in the Absorption-Enhancing Effects of the C-Terminal Fragment of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin
A. Masuyama (2005)
Physiological, pathological, and therapeutic implications of zonulin-mediated intestinal barrier modulation: living life on the edge of the wall.
A. Fasano (2008)
Drug solubility in human jejunal fluids and physiologically relevant media : relative importance of buffer composition and intestinal surfactants
A Fasano (2007)
The relationship between the absolute molecular weight and the degree of quaternisation of N-trimethyl chitosan chloride
D. Snyman (2002)
A comparative in vitro assessment of the drug release performance of pH-responsive polymers for ileo-colonic delivery.
V. C. Ibekwe (2006)
Mapping of functional regions of Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin.
P. Hanna (1992)
Variability in Gastric pH and Delayed Gastric Emptying in Yucatan Miniature Pigs
R. Oberle (2004)
Evaluation and modification of N-trimethyl chitosan chloride nanoparticles as protein carriers.
Fu Chen (2007)
Effect of the six-mer synthetic peptide (AT1002) fragment of zonula occludens toxin on the intestinal absorption of cyclosporin A.
Keon-Hyoung Song (2008)
Therapeutic Peptides under the Spotlight
C. Pichereau (2006)
Mucoadhesive polymers as platforms for peroral peptide delivery and absorption: synthesis and evaluation of different chitosan-EDTA conjugates.
A. Bernkop-Schnürch (1998)
Advances in peptide pharmaceuticals.
C. Stevenson (2009)
Colonic mucin: methods of measuring mucus thickness.
V. Strugala (2003)
Influence of methylation process on the degree of quaternization of N-trimethyl chitosan chloride.
A. Polnok (2004)
Claudins in occluding junctions of humans and flies.
M. Furuse (2006)
Crosstalk of tight
L 21–33 González-Mariscal (2008)
Drug solubility in human jejunal fluids
H Fadda (2007)
TMC has been used for the oral delivery of salmon
Polnok (2004)
Multiple protein interactions involving proposed extracellular loop domains of the tight junction protein occludin.
A. Nusrat (2005)
Interplay Between Intestinal pH, Transit Time and Feed Status on the In Vivo Performance of pH Responsive Ileo-Colonic Release Systems
V. C. Ibekwe (2008)
Intestinal barrier function: molecular regulation and disease pathogenesis.
Katherine R. Groschwitz (2009)
The controlling biodegradation of chitosan fibers by N-acetylation in vitro and in vivo
Y. Yang (2007)
Polyionic hydrocolloids for the intestinal delivery of protein drugs: alginate and chitosan--a review.
M. George (2006)
Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Peptide Action and Resistance
M. Yeaman (2003)
Gastrointestinal transit of dosage forms in the pig
S. Davis (2001)
Polyelectrolyte complexes of chitosan/heparin and N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan/heparin obtained at different pH: I. Preparation, characterization, and controlled release of heparin
Alessandro F. Martins (2011)
Role of the alkyl moiety and counter ions on the thermal stability of chitosan derivatives
D. Britto (2011)
Crosstalk of tight junction components with signaling pathways.
L. González-Mariscal (2008)
Mechanism and consequence of chitosan-mediated reversible epithelial tight junction opening.
Tzyy-Harn Yeh (2011)
Designing peptide receptor agonists and antagonists
V. Hruby (2002)
Simulation of fasting gastric conditions and its importance for the in vivo dissolution of lipophilic compounds.
M. Vertzoni (2005)
Acidic Mammalian Chitinase in Asthmatic Th2 Inflammation and IL-13 Pathway Activation
Z. Zhu (2004)
Synthetic therapeutic peptides: science and market.
P. Vlieghe (2010)
Comparison of reversible and nonreversible aqueous-soluble lipidized conjugates of salmon calcitonin.
W. Cheng (2008)
Occludin: a novel integral membrane protein localizing at tight junctions
M. Furuse (1993)
N-Trimethyl Chitosan Chloride: Optimum Degree of Quaternization for Drug Absorption Enhancement Across Epithelial Cells
J. Hamman (2003)
Discovering and improving novel peptide therapeutics.
D. P. McGregor (2008)
N-Trimethylated Chitosan Chloride (TMC) Improves the Intestinal Permeation of the Peptide Drug Buserelin In Vitro (Caco-2 Cells) and In Vivo (Rats)
M. Thanou (2004)
Buccal penetration enhancement properties of N-trimethyl chitosan: Influence of quaternization degree on absorption of a high molecular weight molecule.
G. Sandri (2005)
The chitosan derivative, TMC, has been reported to decompose similarly to chitosan by lysozyme processes but the degradation of TMC was pH independent (Verheul et
Hartl (2008)
In vivo degradation of chitosan within humans has been attributed to three enzymes namely acidic mammalian chitinase, di-N-acetylchitobiase and chitotriosidase (Renkema et al
of deacetylation Xu (2007)
Enzymatic barriers for GI peptide and protein delivery.
J. Woodley (1994)
Degradation of Relaxin Family Peptides by Insulin‐Degrading Enzyme
R. Bennett (2009)
Targeting tight junction proteins-significance for drug development.
M. Kondoh (2008)
Trimethyl chitosan and its applications in drug delivery
V. Mourya (2009)
Absorption enhancers.
S. Muranishi (1990)
Direct association of occludin with ZO-1 and its possible involvement in the localization of occludin at tight junctions
M. Furuse (1994)
Multi-PDZ Domain Protein 1 (MUPP1) Is Concentrated at Tight Junctions through Its Possible Interaction with Claudin-1 and Junctional Adhesion Molecule*
Y. Hamazaki (2002)
Engineering design and molecular dynamics of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems as targeting agents.
Laura Serra (2009)
Effect of the degree of quaternisation of N-trimethyl chitosan chloride on absorption enhancement: in vivo evaluation in rat nasal epithelia.
J. Hamman (2002)
Dissolution of pH responsive formulations in media resembling intestinal fluids: bicarbonate versus phosphate buffers
H. Fadda (2005)
Modulation of intestinal tight junctions by Zonula occludens toxin permits enteral administration of insulin and other macromolecules in an animal model.
A. Fasano (1997)
Center for devices and radiological health (CDRH)’s approval of Celox topical hemostatic granules as a medical device (K061079)
J Ranfeild (2006)
Exploring the factors affecting the solubility of chitosan in water Effect of the six-mer synthetic peptide (AT-1002) fragment of zonula occludens toxin on the intestinal absorption of cyclosporine A
Ia Sogias (2008)
ZO-3, a novel member of the MUGUK protein family found at the tight junction, interacts with ZO-1 and occludin Treatment of menopausal symptoms: what shall we do now
J Haskins (1998)

This paper is referenced by
Nanoemulsification Technology in Improving Bioavailability of Lipophilic Functional Food-Grade Ingredients and Quality of Food Products
S. Maiti (2017)
Physicomechanical Characterization and Optimization of EDTA–mPEG and Avicel®–EDTA–mPEG In Situ Melt Dispersion Mini-Pellets
Angus R. Hibbins (2013)
Design of a Versatile pH-Responsive Hydrogel for Potential Oral Delivery of Gastric-Sensitive Bioactives
Angus R. Hibbins (2017)
Excipient foods: designing food matrices that improve the oral bioavailability of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals.
D. J. Mcclements (2014)
Physicochemical and colloidal aspects of food matrix effects on gastrointestinal fate of ingested inorganic nanoparticles.
D. J. Mcclements (2017)
Bioactive Peptides from Meat Proteins as Functional Food Components
J. Wu (2015)
Excipient Nanoemulsions for Improving Oral Bioavailability of Bioactives
L. Salvia-Trujillo (2016)
Utilizing food effects to overcome challenges in delivery of lipophilic bioactives: structural design of medical and functional foods
D. J. Mcclements (2013)
Boosting the bioavailability of hydrophobic nutrients, vitamins, and nutraceuticals in natural products using excipient emulsions.
D. J. Mcclements (2016)
Enhancing nutraceutical bioavailability by controlling the composition and structure of gastrointestinal contents: Emulsion-based delivery and excipient systems
Ruojie Zhang (2016)
Enhancing Nutraceutical Performance Using Excipient Foods: Designing Food Structures and Compositions to Increase Bioavailability
David Julian McClements (2015)
An ex vivo investigation of the potential drug permeation enhancing effects of selected pepper extracts
V. Niekerk (2019)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar