Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

The Bovine Ruminal Fluid Metabolome

F. Saleem, S. Bouatra, A. C. Guo, N. Psychogios, R. Mandal, S. Dunn, B. Ametaj, D. Wishart
Published 2012 · Biology
Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
The rumen is a unique organ that serves as the primary site for microbial fermentation of ingested plant material for domestic livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats. The chemical composition of ruminal fluid is thought to closely reflect the healthy/unhealthy interaction between rumen microflora and diet. Just as diet and feed quality is important for livestock production, rumen health is also critical to the growth and production of high quality milk and meat. Therefore a detailed understanding of the chemical composition of ruminal fluid and the influence of diet on its composition could help improve the efficiency and effectiveness of farming and veterinary practices. Consequently we have undertaken an effort to comprehensively characterize the bovine ruminal fluid metabolome. In doing so, we combined NMR spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass-spectroscopy (ICP-MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection (DFI) mass spectrometry and lipidomics with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify essentially all of the metabolites in bovine ruminal fluid that can be routinely detected (with today’s technology). The use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these techniques. Tables containing the set of 246 ruminal fluid metabolites or metabolite species, their concentrations, related literature reference and links to their known diet associations for the bovine rumen metabolome are freely available at
This paper references
Feeding fish meal and extruded soybeans enhances the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk.
A. A. Abughazaleh (2002)
Extraction and GC/MS analysis of the human blood plasma metabolome.
Jiye A (2005)
Intermediate Products in the Catabolism of Amino Acids by Rumen Microorganisms
Timothy Richards Lewis (1962)
Animal feeding and nutrition (5th ed.)
M. H. Jurgens (1978)
DNA markers reveal the complexity of livestock domestication
Michael William Bruford (2003)
Zahlung und Teilungs quote der Infusorien im Pansen
K E Ferber (1929)
Lipid analysis: Isolation
W. W. Christie (2003)
Invited review: ruminant ecology and evolution: perspectives useful to ruminant livestock research and production.
Timothy J. Hackmann (2010)
Dynamics of ruminant fat digestion: Part 1. Fatty acid metabolism of ruminants
A L Lock (2006)
Saliva secretion and its relation to feeding in cattle. 2. The composition and rate of secretion of mixed saliva in the cow during rest.
Carl B. Bailey (1961)
Ruminant ecology
T. J. Hackmann (2010)
The Bovine Ruminal Fluid Metabolome 377
Analysis of volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid by proton NMR spectroscopy
M A Attaelmannan (1999)
Feeding- and management-related diseases in the transition cow
K L Ingvartsen (2006)
Saliva secretion and its relation to feeding in cattle. 4. The relationship between the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride and inorganic phosphate in mixed saliva and rumen fluid.
Carl B. Bailey (1961)
New concepts in nutritional
J. K. Drackley (2005)
Metagenomic discovery of biomass
G Schroth (2011)
Dynamics of ruminant fat digestion : Part 1 . Fatty acid metabolism of ruminants
T. McAllister (2006)
Human Cerebrospinal Fluid
Pia Davidsson (2004)
Feeding- and management-related diseases
K. L. Ingvartsen (2006)
DNA markers
M. W. Bruford (2003)
Bovine acidosis: implications on laminitis.
James E. Nocek (1997)
Lipid analysis : Isolation , separation , identification and comparison of methods for quantitative metabolomics of primary metabolism
J. V. Craig (2003)
Separation of neutral lipids and free fatty acids by high-performance liquid chromatography using low wavelength ultraviolet detection.
Jason G. Hamilton (1984)
Guide to the care and use of experimental animals
Ernest D. Olfert (1993)
Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle (7th rev
Nrc (2001)
Metabolomics: Applications to food science
D. S. Wishart (2008)
Setup and Annotation of Metabolomic Experiments by Integrating Biological and Mass Spectrometric Metadata
Oliver Fiehn (2005)
Intermediate products
T. R. Lewis (1962)
Feeding high proportions of barley grain stimulates an inflammatory response in dairy cows.
D. G. Emmanuel (2008)
Metabolomics reveals unhealthy alterations in rumen metabolism with increased proportion of cereal grain in the diet of dairy cows
B. Ametaj (2010)
Optimization of NMR analysis of biological fluids for quantitative accuracy
Erik J. Saude (2006)
A metabolomic investigation of splanchnic metabolism using 1H NMR spectroscopy of bovine blood plasma
Hanne Christine Bertram (2005)
Domestic animals behaviour: Causes and implication for animal care and management (pp. 21–31)
J V Craig (1981)
Metabolic characterization of rumen epithelial tissue from dairy calves fed different starter diets using 1H NMR spectroscopy
Hanne Christine Bertram (2009)
Fragmentation pathway for glutamine identification: Loss of 73 da from dimethylformamidine glutamine isobutyl ester
Qingfen Zhang (2005)
The emerging field of lipidomics
Markus R. Wenk (2005)
Learning more about rumen bugs: Genetic and
T. McAllister (2000)
HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome
David Scott Wishart (2009)
Metabolomics: applications to food science and nutrition research
David S. Wishart (2008)
Room temperature acid sonication ICP-MS multielemental analysis of milk
Patricia Cava-Montesinos (2005)
Ruminant ecology and evolution : Perspectives useful to livestock research and production
J. G. Hamilton (2010)
Metabolomics reveals unhealthy altera
J Xia (2010)
Animal Feeding and Nutrition
Marshall H. Jurgens (1988)
Quantitative metabolomics using NMR
David Scott Wishart (2008)
Saliva secretion and its relation
C. B. Bailey (1961)
Domestic animals behaviour: Causes and implication for animal care and management (pp
J. V. Craig (1981)
Lipidomics: a mass spectrometry based systems level analysis of cellular lipids.
Pavlína Tongelová Ivanová (2009)
Cross-platform comparison of methods for quantitative metabolomics of primary metabolism.
Joerg M. Buescher (2009)
Separation of neutral lipids
J. G. Hamilton (1984)
Factors influencing the extent of biohydrogenation of linoleic acid by rumen micro-organisms in vitro.
C. G. Harfoot (1973)
Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle (7th rev
NRC. (2001)
Domestic animals behaviour: Causes and implication for animal care and management
J V Craig (1981)
Targeted profiling: quantitative analysis of 1H NMR metabolomics data.
Aalim M Weljie (2006)
The origin of the domestic pig: independent domestication and subsequent introgression.
Elisabetta Giuffra (2000)
The human cerebrospinal fluid metabolome.
David Scott Wishart (2008)
Learning more about rumen bugs : Genetic and environmental factors affecting rumen bugs
J. E. Nocek (2000)
Saliva secretion and its relation to feeding in cattle. 3. The rate of secretion of mixed saliva in the cow during eating, with an estimate of the magnitude of the total daily secretion of mixed saliva.
Carl B. Bailey (1961)
Lipid analysis: Isolation, separation, identification and comparison of methods for quantitative metabolomics of primary metabolism
W W Christie (2003)
Learning more about rumen bugs: Genetic and environmental factors affecting rumen bugs
T Mcallister (2000)
The Human Serum Metabolome
Nikolaos Psychogios (2011)
Zahlung und Teilungs quote der Infusorien im Pansen
O. Fiehn (1929)
Acidosis in cattle: a review.
F N Owens (1998)
Nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin-related diseases in dairy cows
B. Ametaj (2010)
Carbohydrate metabolism in Fibrobacter succinogenes: What NMR tells us
Evelyne Forano (2008)
Metagenomic Discovery of Biomass-Degrading Genes and Genomes from Cow Rumen
Matthias Hess (2011)
A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification.
E. G. Bligh (1959)
Dynamics of ruminant
J. K. Drackley (2006)
The effects of lysocellin and varying calcium levels on performance and ruminal and plasma characteristics of growing beef steers fed corn silage.
Elizabeth B. Kegley (1990)
Ruminant ecology and evolution: Perspectives useful to livestock research and production
T J Hackmann (2010)
PolySearch: a web-based text mining system for extracting relationships between human diseases, genes, mutations, drugs and metabolites
Dean Cheng (2008)
New Concepts in Nutritional Management of Dry Cows
James K Drackley (2005)

This paper is referenced by
Treatment of corn with lactic acid or hydrochloric acid modulates the rumen and plasma metabolic profiles as well as inflammatory responses in beef steers
You Yang (2018)
Diet‐induced changes of redox potential underlie compositional shifts in the rumen archaeal community
Nir Friedman (2017)
Metabolic health, the metabolome and reproduction in female cattle: a review
Michael J D'Occhio (2019)
Invited review: Role of bacterial endotoxins in the etiopathogenesis of periparturient diseases of transition dairy cows.
E. F. Eckel (2016)
Effects of Dietary Energy Levels on Rumen Fermentation, Microbial Diversity, and Feed Efficiency of Yaks (Bos grunniens)
Anum Ali Ahmad (2020)
Cultivation of multiple genera of hydrogenotrophic methanogens from different environmental niches.
Akshay D. Joshi (2018)
Advanced estimation and mitigation strategies: a cumulative approach to enteric methane abatement from ruminants
Mahfuzul Islam (2019)
Livestock metabolomics and the livestock metabolome: A systematic review
Seyed Ali Goldansaz (2017)
Altered Metabolomic Profile in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease
Ahmed Ismaeel (2019)
A Structural and Functional Elucidation of the Rumen Microbiome Influenced by Various Diets and Microenvironments
Simon Deusch (2017)
Scotland ' s Rural College Addressing global ruminant agricultural challenges through understanding the rumen microbiome : past , present and future
Sharon Ann Huws (2018)
Effect of Dietary Forage to Concentrate Ratios on Dynamic Profile Changes and Interactions of Ruminal Microbiota and Metabolites in Holstein Heifers
J. Zhang (2017)
Addressing Global Ruminant Agricultural Challenges Through Understanding the Rumen Microbiome: Past, Present, and Future
S. Huws (2018)
Omic Approaches to a Better Understanding of Mastitis in Dairy Cows
M. Mudaliar (2017)
Keny Samejima Mascarenhas Lopes (2013)
Biochemical and Microbial Biomarkers Mediating Feed Efficiency in Cattle
Brooke A. Clemmons (2018)
Rumen Fluid Metabolomics Analysis Associated with Feed Efficiency on Crossbred Steers
Virginia M Artegoitia (2017)
Comparative metabolome analysis of ruminal changes in Holstein dairy cows fed low- or high-concentrate diets
Ruiyang Zhang (2017)
Rumen and plasma metabolomics profiling by UHPLC-QTOF/MS revealed metabolic alterations associated with a high-corn diet in beef steers
You Yang (2018)
Analytical methods in lipidomics and their applications.
Min Li (2014)
Metabolic Modeling Elucidates the Transactions in the Rumen Microbiome and the Shifts upon Virome Interactions
Mohammad Mazharul Islam (2019)
Cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropical reduces the fat deposition in white-feather broilers through cecum bacteria-host metabolic cross-talk
Junli Niu (2020)
Laminitis: A Multisystems Veterinary Perspective with Omics Technologies
R. Uwiera (2017)
Rumen transfaunation.
E.J. DePeters (2014)
Metabolomics reveals potential biomarkers in the rumen fluid of dairy cows with different levels of milk production
Hua Zhang (2019)
Meta-analysis: effects of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes in ruminant diets
Deli Nazmín Tirado-González (2018)
Specific microbiome-dependent mechanisms underlie the energy harvest efficiency of ruminants
Sheerli Kruger Ben Shabat (2016)
Metabolomics in Livestock Sciences
Birbal Singh (2019)
Metabolic Modeling Elucidates the Transactions in the Rumen Microbiome and the Shifts Upon Virome Interactions
Mohammad Mazharul Islam (2019)
Influence of probiotic feed supplements on functional status of rumen
Ľuboš Zábranský (2019)
A batch culture study of the rumen bacterial community and the fermentative digestion of forage in cattle
Katie McDermott (2018)
Metabolomics and Agriculture: What Can Be Done?
Rodolpho Martin do Prado (2018)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar