Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Diffusion-weighted (DW) And Dynamic Contrast-enhanced (DCE) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) For Monitoring Anticancer Therapy

A. Padhani, Aftab Alam Khan
Published 2010 · Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
There is an increasing awareness that anatomical approaches based on measurements of tumor size have significant limitations for assessing therapy response. Functional imaging techniques are increasing being used to monitor response to therapies with novel mechanisms of action, often predicting the success of therapy before conventional measurements have changed. Dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most advanced in their evidence base, and in this manuscript we focus on them as response parameters. Technology, data gathering methods, and current limitations for these techniques are addressed. With few exceptions, most studies shows that successful treatment is reflected by increases in tumor water diffusion values visible as increased apparent diffusion coefficient values. Most response assessment studies also show that successful treatment results in decreases in tumor vascularization and microvessel permeability.
This paper references
10.1200/JCO.2003.05.187
Combretastatin A4 phosphate has tumor antivascular activity in rat and man as demonstrated by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.
S. Galbraith (2003)
10.1002/MRM.1910360607
Biexponential diffusion attenuation in various states of brain tissue: Implications for diffusion‐weighted imaging
T. Niendorf (1996)
10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.08.023
Semiquantitative and quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging measurements predict radiation response in cervix cancer.
Mark A. Zahra (2009)
10.2967/jnumed.107.047258
Causes and Consequences of Increased Glucose Metabolism of Cancers
R. Gillies (2008)
10.1593/NEO.81328
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging as a cancer biomarker: consensus and recommendations.
A. Padhani (2009)
10.1038/nm.1919
The parametric response map is an imaging biomarker for early cancer treatment outcome
C. Galbán (2009)
Reproducibility and changes in the apparent diffusion coefficients of solid tumours treated with combretastatin A4 phosphate and bevacizumab in a two-centre phase I clinical trial
P. Sutton (2010)
10.1007/s11604-007-0218-3
Relation between cancer cellularity and apparent diffusion coefficient values using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in breast cancer
Miho I. Yoshikawa (2007)
10.1097/00002142-200402000-00005
Perfusion MR Imaging of Extracranial Tumor Angiogenesis
A. Padhani (2004)
10.1038/sj.bjc.6601843
Evaluation of the response to treatment of solid tumours – a consensus statement of the International Cancer Imaging Society
J. Husband (2004)
10.1088/0031-9155/52/1/006
Reproducibility of reference tissue quantification of dynamic contrast-enhanced data: comparison with a fixed vascular input function.
S. Walker-Samuel (2007)
10.1007/s00330-007-0847-z
Detection of colorectal hepatic metastases using MnDPDP MR imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) alone and in combination
D. Koh (2007)
10.1002/jmri.21797
Diffusion‐weighted imaging of prostate cancer: Correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient values and tumor proliferation
X. Wang (2009)
10.2214/AJR.06.1403
Diffusion-weighted MRI in the body: applications and challenges in oncology.
D. Koh (2007)
Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging of the Brain 1 Diffusion
P. Schaefer (2000)
10.1593/NEO.03343
Changes in water mobility measured by diffusion MRI predict response of metastatic breast cancer to chemotherapy.
R. Theilmann (2004)
Measurement of local blood flow by the exchange of an inert, diffusible substance
S Kety (1960)
10.1002/jmri.21472
Scan‐rescan variability in perfusion assessment of tumors in MRI using both model and data‐derived arterial input functions
E. Ashton (2008)
Blood-tissue exchange methods. Theory of bloodtissue exchange and its application to measurement of blood flow
S Kety (1960)
10.1200/JCO.2005.05.098
Randomized phase III trial of capecitabine compared with bevacizumab plus capecitabine in patients with previously treated metastatic breast cancer.
K. Miller (2005)
10.3892/IJO.30.2.453
Combretastatin A-4-phosphate effectively increases tumor retention of the therapeutic antibody, 131I-A5B7, even at doses that are sub-optimal for vascular shut-down.
K. Lankester (2007)
10.1038/nrc2397
Cycling hypoxia and free radicals regulate angiogenesis and radiotherapy response
M. Dewhirst (2008)
10.1148/RADIOL.2441060810
Hodgkin disease: diagnostic value of FDG PET/CT after first-line therapy--is biopsy of FDG-avid lesions still needed?
N. Schaefer (2007)
10.1002/nbm.1320
Monitoring of gliomas in vivo by diffusion MRI and 1H MRS during gene therapy‐induced apoptosis: interrelationships between water diffusion and mobile lipids
T. Liimatainen (2009)
10.1038/nm0901-987
Normalizing tumor vasculature with anti-angiogenic therapy: A new paradigm for combination therapy
R. Jain (2001)
10.1007/s00330-006-0342-y
Monitoring therapeutic responses of primary bone tumors by diffusion-weighted image: initial results
Y. Hayashida (2006)
Diffusion-weighted imaging of metastatic brain tumors: comparison with histologic type and tumor cellularity.
Y. Hayashida (2006)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-2917
A Vasculature-Targeting Regimen of Preoperative Docetaxel with or without Bevacizumab for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Impact on Angiogenic Biomarkers
J. Baar (2009)
10.1245/s10434-009-0441-5
Residual Breast Cancer Diagnosed by MRI in Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with and Without Bevacizumab
S. Bahri (2009)
10.4161/cbt.7.4.5624
Pilot study of DCE-MRI to predict progression-free survival with sorafenib therapy in renal cell carcinoma
K. Flaherty (2008)
10.2463/MRMS.6.147
Whole-body MRI for detecting metastatic bone tumor: diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted images.
K. Nakanishi (2007)
10.1002/mrm.10080
Uncertainty in the analysis of tracer kinetics using dynamic contrast‐enhanced T1‐weighted MRI
D. Buckley (2002)
10.1148/radiol.2512080485
Vessel growth and function: depiction with contrast-enhanced MR imaging.
M. Oostendorp (2009)
10.1200/JCO.2007.15.5655
Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging pharmacodynamic biomarker study of sorafenib in metastatic renal carcinoma.
O. Hahn (2008)
10.1016/S1043-321X(08)80016-1
Inflammatory Breast Cancer: Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR in Patients Receiving Bevacizumab—Initial Experience
M. Su (2008)
10.1016/J.CCR.2006.11.021
AZD2171, a pan-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, normalizes tumor vasculature and alleviates edema in glioblastoma patients.
T. Batchelor (2007)
10.1002/jmri.1149
Diffusion tensor MRI of the human kidney
M. Ries (2001)
10.1016/J.CLINIMAG.2004.04.015
Can preoperative contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging for prostate cancer predict microvessel density in prostatectomy specimens?
H. Schlemmer (2004)
10.1038/ncponc1073
Technology Insight: water diffusion MRI—a potential new biomarker of response to cancer therapy
D. M. Patterson (2008)
10.1200/JCO.2007.15.2363
Functional diffusion map as an early imaging biomarker for high-grade glioma: correlation with conventional radiologic response and overall survival.
D. Hamstra (2008)
10.1200/JCO.2008.26.15_SUPPL.3550
A phase I study of combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) and bevacizumab in subjects with advanced solid tumors
P. D. Nathan (2008)
10.1007/s11547-008-0246-9
Malignant renal neoplasms: correlation between ADC values and cellularity in diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T
G. Manenti (2008)
10.1002/1522-2594(200006)43:6<828::AID-MRM8>3.0.CO;2-P
Measurement of cell density and necrotic fraction in human melanoma xenografts by diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging
H. Lyng (2000)
10.1002/(SICI)1522-2586(199909)10:3<223::AID-JMRI2>3.0.CO;2-S
Estimating kinetic parameters from dynamic contrast‐enhanced t1‐weighted MRI of a diffusable tracer: Standardized quantities and symbols
P. Tofts (1999)
10.1097/01.rli.0000225398.17315.68
Osteosarcoma: Preliminary Results of In Vivo Assessment of Tumor Necrosis After Chemotherapy With Diffusion- and Perfusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging
M. Uhl (2006)
10.1016/J.MRI.2005.11.005
Diffusion changes precede size reduction in neoadjuvant treatment of breast cancer.
M. Pickles (2006)
10.1016/S1051-0443(07)61299-8
Chemoembolization of liver tumor in a rabbit model: assessment of tumor cell death with diffusion-weighted MR imaging and histologic analysis.
J. Geschwind (2000)
10.1200/JCO.2007.14.9930
Bevacizumab in combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy as first-line therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer: a randomized phase III study.
L. Saltz (2008)
10.1002/(SICI)1522-2586(199901)9:1<53::AID-JMRI7>3.0.CO;2-2
Usefulness of diffusion‐weighted MRI with echo‐planar technique in the evaluation of cellularity in gliomas
T. Sugahara (1999)
Non-enhancing pixels: a specific additional DCE-MRI kinetic parameter for assessing antivascular effects of anti-angiogenic and vascular disruptive agents
NJ Taylor (2009)
10.1148/RADIOLOGY.217.2.R00NV24331
Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the brain.
P. Schaefer (2000)
10.1148/RADIOLOGY.207.3.9609906
Evaluation of chemotherapy in advanced urinary bladder cancer with fast dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging.
J. Barentsz (1998)
[New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours-revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1)].
H. Watanabe (2009)
10.1002/1522-2594(200010)44:4<563::AID-MRM10>3.0.CO;2-#
Determination of the MRI contrast agent concentration time course in vivo following bolus injection: Effect of equilibrium transcytolemmal water exchange
C. S. Landis (2000)
10.1007/s11060-004-3342-2
Characterization of brain tumors by MRS, DWI and Ki-67 labeling index
J. A. Calvar (2004)
10.1002/mrm.22003
Quantifying spatial heterogeneity in dynamic contrast‐enhanced MRI parameter maps
C. J. Rose (2009)
10.1038/sj.bjc.6602814
Effects of platinum/taxane based chemotherapy on acute perfusion in human pelvic tumours measured by dynamic MRI
K. Lankester (2005)
10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08130.x
Correlation of diffusion‐weighted magnetic resonance data with cellularity in prostate cancer
B. Zelhof (2009)
10.1148/RADIOL.2392021099
Prediction of clinicopathologic response of breast cancer to primary chemotherapy at contrast-enhanced MR imaging: initial clinical results.
A. Padhani (2006)
10.1002/NBM.731
Reproducibility of dynamic contrast‐enhanced MRI in human muscle and tumours: comparison of quantitative and semi‐quantitative analysis
S. Galbraith (2002)
10.1002/mrm.10098
Transcytolemmal water exchange and its affect on the determination of contrast agent concentration in vivo
D. Buckley (2002)
10.1593/NEO.07954
A feasibility study evaluating the functional diffusion map as a predictive imaging biomarker for detection of treatment response in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer to the bone.
K. Lee (2007)
10.1093/JNCI/DJJ162
Minimally invasive pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic technologies in hypothesis-testing clinical trials of innovative therapies.
P. Workman (2006)
10.1148/RADIOLOGY.218.2.R01JA04365
Effects of androgen deprivation on prostatic morphology and vascular permeability evaluated with mr imaging.
A. Padhani (2001)
10.1200/JCO.2008.19.9356
Edema control by cediranib, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-targeted kinase inhibitor, prolongs survival despite persistent brain tumor growth in mice.
W. Kamoun (2009)
10.1038/sj.bjc.6602550
The assessment of antiangiogenic and antivascular therapies in early-stage clinical trials using magnetic resonance imaging: issues and recommendations
M. Leach (2005)
10.3174/ajnr.A1377
Relative Cerebral Blood Volume Values to Differentiate High-Grade Glioma Recurrence from Posttreatment Radiation Effect: Direct Correlation between Image-Guided Tissue Histopathology and Localized Dynamic Susceptibility-Weighted Contrast-Enhanced Perfusion MR Imaging Measurements
L. Hu (2009)
10.1155/2009/208725
Clinical Applications of FDG PET and PET/CT in Head and Neck Cancer
Akram Al-Ibraheem (2009)
10.1038/ncponc0982
Technology Insight: novel imaging of molecular targets is an emerging area crucial to the development of targeted drugs
W. Weber (2008)
10.1200/JCO.2003.05.069
Early detection of response to radiation therapy in patients with brain malignancies using conventional and high b-value diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.
Y. Mardor (2003)
10.1227/01.NEU.0000204873.68395.A0
Dexamethasone and Enhancing Solitary Cerebral Mass Lesions: Alterations in Perfusion and Blood-tumor Barrier Kinetics Shown by Magnetic Resonance Imaging
I. Wilkinson (2006)
10.1073/PNAS.0501532102
Functional diffusion map: a noninvasive MRI biomarker for early stratification of clinical brain tumor response.
B. Moffat (2005)
10.1002/1522-2586(200012)12:6<1004::AID-JMRI27>3.0.CO;2
Semiquantitative assessment of uterine perfusion using first pass dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging for patients treated with uterine fibroid embolization.
W. Li (2000)
10.1148/RADIOL.2281011651
Osteogenic and Ewing sarcomas: estimation of necrotic fraction during induction chemotherapy with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging.
J. Dyke (2003)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-0731
Quantifying Antivascular Effects of Monoclonal Antibodies to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: Insights from Imaging
J. O'Connor (2009)
10.1148/radiol.2483071740
Breast tumor xenografts: diffusion-weighted MR imaging to assess early therapy with novel apoptosis-inducing anti-DR5 antibody.
H. Kim (2008)
10.1200/JCO.2007.11.9610
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging: a biomarker for treatment response in oncology.
D. Hamstra (2007)
10.1002/JMRI.1880070113
Modeling tracer kinetics in dynamic Gd‐DTPA MR imaging
P. Tofts (1997)
10.1063/1.1695690
Spin diffusion measurements : spin echoes in the presence of a time-dependent field gradient
E. Stejskal (1965)
Pharmacokinetics of GdDTPA/dimeglumine after intravenous injection into healthy volunteers.
H. J. Weinmann (1984)
10.1007/s11060-009-9807-6
RETRACTED ARTICLE: Glioma grading: sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of diffusion and perfusion imaging
H. R. Arvinda (2009)
10.7863/jum.2007.26.6.749
Measuring Tumor Perfusion in Control and Treated Murine Tumors
K. Niermann (2007)
10.1016/J.JVIR.2006.10.005
Functional MR imaging assessment of tumor response after 90Y microsphere treatment in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.
I. Kamel (2007)
10.1016/J.MRI.2006.09.006
Integration of quantitative DCE-MRI and ADC mapping to monitor treatment response in human breast cancer: initial results.
T. Yankeelov (2007)
10.1038/sj.bjc.6603515
DCE-MRI biomarkers in the clinical evaluation of antiangiogenic and vascular disrupting agents
J. P. O'Connor (2007)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-4310
Early Changes in Functional Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predict for Pathologic Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Primary Breast Cancer
M. Ah-See (2008)
10.1056/NEJMOA072113
Paclitaxel plus bevacizumab versus paclitaxel alone for metastatic breast cancer.
K. Miller (2007)
10.1148/RADIOLOGY.168.2.3393671
Separation of diffusion and perfusion in intravoxel incoherent motion MR imaging.
D. Le Bihan (1988)
10.1201/B12939-11
Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging
E. Ashton (2012)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-0238
Imaging Tumor Vascular Heterogeneity and Angiogenesis using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging
A. Jackson (2007)
10.1016/S0098-1672(09)79044-7
Focal Liver Lesion Detection and Characterization with Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging: Comparison with Standard Breath-hold T2-weighted Imaging
A. D. Levy (2009)
Discrimination of metastatic cervical lymph nodes with diffusion-weighted MR imaging in patients with head and neck cancer.
M. Sumi (2003)
10.1016/J.IJROBP.2005.04.052
Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of radiation therapy-induced microcirculation changes in rectal cancer.
Q. D. de Lussanet (2005)
10.1148/RADIOL.2452061535
Tumors in pediatric patients at diffusion-weighted MR imaging: apparent diffusion coefficient and tumor cellularity.
P. Humphries (2007)
10.1097/RCT.0b013e31819e93af
Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Uterine Cervical Cancer
Y. Liu (2009)
10.1016/j.acra.2008.03.019
Metabolic and vascular features of dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging and (15)O-water positron emission tomography blood flow in breast cancer.
P. Eby (2008)
10.1593/NEO.07289
Validation of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging-derived vascular permeability measurements using quantitative autoradiography in the RG2 rat brain tumor model.
Moira C. Ferrier (2007)
10.1002/(SICI)1522-2586(199909)10:3<277::AID-JMRI8>3.0.CO;2-S
Dynamic MR imaging (DEMRI) of microcirculation in bone sarcoma
W. Reddick (1999)
10.1002/jmri.20881
Dynamic MRI for imaging tumor microvasculature: Comparison of susceptibility and relaxivity techniques in pelvic tumors
K. Lankester (2007)
10.1148/radiol.2483071407
Apparent diffusion coefficient: potential imaging biomarker for prediction and early detection of response to chemotherapy in hepatic metastases.
Y. Cui (2008)
10.1200/JCO.2005.04.143
Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as a pharmacodynamic measure of response after acute dosing of AG-013736, an oral angiogenesis inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors: results from a phase I study.
G. Liu (2005)
10.1007/s00330-003-2025-2
Can pre-operative contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging for prostate cancer predict microvessel density in prostatectomy specimens?
H. Schlemmer (2004)
10.1148/RADIOL.2261011904
Evaluation of liver diffusion isotropy and characterization of focal hepatic lesions with two single-shot echo-planar MR imaging sequences: prospective study in 66 patients.
B. Taouli (2003)
10.1259/BJR/81090732
Analysis of MR diffusion weighted images.
G. Parker (2004)
10.1200/JCO.2008.16.9607
Medical care in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study.
P. Nathan (2008)
10.1007/s00259-010-1451-z
Perfusion MRI in the early clinical development of antivascular drugs: decorations or decision making tools?
M. Zweifel (2010)
10.1200/JCO.2006.07.3411
We should desist using RECIST, at least in GIST.
R. Benjamin (2007)



This paper is referenced by
10.1016/j.mri.2014.08.014
Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI assessment of microvascular characteristics in the murine orthotopic pancreatic cancer model.
L. Wu (2015)
10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.01.028
Lobulated enhancement evaluation in the follow-up of liver metastases treated by stereotactic body radiation therapy.
H. Jarraya (2015)
Pre-treatment prognostic value of DCE-MRI vascular , texture , shape and size parameters compared to traditional survival indicators obtained from locally advanced breast cancer patients
D. J. Martin (2015)
10.1088/0031-9155/57/24/8443
Comparison between PUN and Tofts models in the quantification of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging.
S. Mazzetti (2012)
10.1590/S0100-39842014000200013
Functional magnetic resonance imaging in oncology: state of the art*
M. Guimarães (2014)
10.3109/0284186X.2010.500619
Apparent diffusion coefficients in GEC ESTRO target volumes for image guided adaptive brachytherapy of locally advanced cervical cancer
S. Haack (2010)
10.1002/jmri.24385
Dynamic contrast enhanced‐MRI in rectal cancer: Inter‐ and intraobserver reproducibility and the effect of slice selection on pharmacokinetic analysis
Andreas M. Hötker (2014)
10.1016/j.rcl.2011.07.014
Advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques in the evaluation of musculoskeletal tumors.
F. Costa (2011)
10.1016/j.acra.2013.01.015
Combined diffusion-weighted, blood oxygen level-dependent, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for characterization and differentiation of renal cell carcinoma.
M. Notohamiprodjo (2013)
10.1016/J.MEDNUC.2012.02.177
Comparaison IRM de diffusion corps entier et TEP/TDM au 18FDG dans le diagnostic de myélome symptomatique
E. Brillet (2012)
10.1007/s00330-014-3502-5
Prognostic value of DCE-MRI in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a comparison with traditional survival indicators
M. Pickles (2014)
10.1097/RLI.0000000000000101
Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Parametric Maps to Evaluate Intratumoral Vascularization
S. Pitre-Champagnat (2015)
10.1111/vru.12608
Consensus recommendations on standardized magnetic resonance imaging protocols for multicenter canine brain tumor clinical trials
R. Packer (2018)
Predictive values of serum VEGF and CRP levels combined with contrast enhanced MRI in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after TACE.
Zhi Li (2016)
10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-2499
Monitoring Tumor Response to Antivascular Therapy Using Non-Contrast Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-Weighted MRI.
C. Shi (2017)
10.1148/radiol.12120111
Solid pancreatic lesions: characterization by using timing bolus dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging assessment--a preliminary study.
J. Kim (2013)
10.1016/j.ejrad.2013.04.012
Value of whole body MRI and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in the diagnosis, follow-up and evaluation of disease activity and extent in multiple myeloma.
J. Dutoit (2013)
10.1371/journal.pone.0149279
Relating Doses of Contrast Agent Administered to TIC and Semi-Quantitative Parameters on DCE-MRI: Based on a Murine Breast Tumor Model
Menglin Wu (2016)
10.18383/j.tom.2019.00015
R2* Relaxation Affects Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Cancer and Underestimates Treatment Response at 7 T
Jana Kim (2019)
10.1007/s00234-010-0802-6
MR perfusion and diffusion imaging in the follow-up of recurrent glioblastoma treated with dendritic cell immunotherapy: a pilot study
M. Vrabec (2010)
10.4103/ijri.IJRI_441_18
Role of apparent diffusion coefficient as a biomarker in the evaluation of cervical cancer
S. Dashottar (2019)
10.4329/wjr.v8.i1.90
Texture analysis on parametric maps derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in head and neck cancer.
J. Jansen (2016)
10.21147/j.issn.1000-9604.2018.03.10
Imaging evaluation of sorafenib for treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
T. Zheng (2018)
10.1097/RCT.0b013e3182720e07
Agreement and Reproducibility of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Measurements of Dual-b-Value and Multi-b-Value Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 1.5 Tesla in Phantom and in Soft Tissues of the Abdomen
Celia P. Corona-Villalobos (2013)
10.1007/s13244-013-0220-5
ESR statement on the stepwise development of imaging biomarkers
European Society of Radiology (2013)
10.1016/j.placenta.2013.06.304
Application of the steepest slope model reveals different perfusion territories within the mouse placenta.
C. C. Remus (2013)
10.4103/0366-6999.155127
Role of Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameters in the Evaluation of Treatment Response in Malignant Tumors
Q. Xu (2015)
Multiparametric MRI for automatic tumor segmentation
B. Ross (2019)
10.1007/s00256-017-2609-6
Whole-body MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and diffusion-weighted imaging for the staging of multiple myeloma
J. Dutoit (2017)
10.3389/fonc.2016.00152
Metabolic Imaging to Assess Treatment Response to Cytotoxic and Cytostatic Agents
N. Serkova (2016)
10.1016/J.RX.2015.11.002
Infiltración de la médula ósea, mieloma múltiple y enfermedad metastásica
J. Vilanova (2016)
10.1016/j.mri.2017.06.006
Correlation study between DKI and conventional DWI in brain and head and neck tumors.
S. Minosse (2017)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar