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The Relations Between Drought Susceptibility Index Based On Grain Yield (DSIGY) And Key Physiological Seedling Traits In Maize And Triticale Genotypes

M. Grzesiak, P. Waligórski, F. Janowiak, I. Marcińska, K. Hura, P. Szczyrek, T. Głąb
Published 2012 · Biology

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The physiological reasons for the differences in sensitivity of C3 and C4 plant species to environmental stresses have not been thoroughly explained. In this study the effects of drought stress on the growth and selected physiological traits were examined in the seedlings of 13 single cross maize (C4 plant) hybrids and 11 spring triticale (C3 plant) breeding lines and varieties differing in drought sensitivity. For plants in the seedling stage the results demonstrated a genetic variation in dry matter accumulation of shoots and roots (DWS, DWR), number (N) and length (L) of particular components (seminal, seminal adventitious, nodal) of the root system, membrane injury by soil drought (LID), osmotic and high temperature stress (LIOS, LIHT), water potential (ψ), water loss (WL), grain germination in osmotic stress (FG, PI), and seedling survival (SS). Seedlings grown under moderate soil drought showed a decrease in dry matter of the top parts and roots and a decrease in the length of seminal, seminal adventitious and nodal roots in comparison to seedlings grown in control conditions. The observed harmful effects of drought stress were more distinct in drought sensitive genotypes. Used in this paper drought susceptibility indexes (DSIGY) were calculated in other experiment by determining the changes in grain yield (GY) under two soil moisture levels (irrigated and drought). The variation of DSIGY for maize ranges from 0.381 to 0.650 and for triticale from 0.354 to 0.578. The correlations between DSIGY and laboratory tests (LI, FG, SS) confirmed that they are good indicators of drought tolerance in plants. The highest values of genetic variation were observed in LI, DWS, SS and WL and the lowest in the measurements of ψ FG, PI, LS, LSA and LN. The correlation coefficients between LIOS and LIHT tests were, in most of the considered cases, statistically significant, which indicates that in maize and triticale the mechanisms of membrane injury caused by simulated drought or high temperature are physiologically similar. It can be concluded that an approach to the breeding of maize and triticale for drought tolerance using these tests can be implemented on the basis of separate selection for each trait or for all of them simultaneously. In that case, it would be necessary to determine the importance of the trait in relation to growth phase, drought timing and level, as well as its associations with morphological traits contributing to drought tolerance. The obtained values of the correlation coefficient between laboratory tests suggest that the same physiological traits may be applied as selection criteria in drought tolerance of maize and triticale genotypes.
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