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Ecological And Human Health Risk Assessment Of Heavy Metal Content Of Atmospheric Dry Deposition, A Case Study: Kermanshah, Iran
Published 2018 · Environmental Science, Medicine
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The present study was intended to investigate the ecological and human health risk of cobalt, nickel, and vanadium in the atmospheric dry deposition of the Kermanshah city, Iran, in 2015. Totally 54 samples of atmospheric dry deposition were collected from the three regions of the city with different traffic intensity, and after acid digestion of the samples with ultrapure concentrated HNO3, the total contents of the metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Also, all statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. The atmospheric dry deposition element contents increase according to the following descending order for both autumn seasons: Ni > Co > V. The results of potential ecological risk analysis demonstrated that metals in the samples are in low ecological risk levels, whereas the results of human health risk assessment showed that ingestion is the main exposure pathway of heavy metals in the dust to the local residents compared with inhalation and dermal pathways. Also, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (95% UCL) of hazard indices for non-carcinogenic risks of all analyzed metals in the dust samples was within the safe level for both children and adults. On the other hand, the carcinogenic risk levels of Co and Ni were all lower than the acceptable range (10−6–10−4) to local citizens. Consequently, the results advocate the necessity of understanding the heavy metal content of atmospheric dry deposition and regular monitoring of air pollution.
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