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Predictive Factors Of Malignancy In Pediatric Patients With Thyroid Nodules And Performance Of The Italian Classification (SIAPEC 2014) In The Outcome Of The Cytological FNA Categories

G. Tuli, Jessica Munarin, Erica Agosto, P. Matarazzo, F. Quaglino, A. Mormile, L. De Sanctis
Published 2021 · Medicine

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The rate of malignancy (ROM) among pediatric studies using the Bethesda System is 39.5% and 41.5% for atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance and for suspected follicular neoplasm, respectively. Data reported on the basis of Bethesda System showed lower ROM in adults with indeterminate nodules (30.5 and 28.9% respectively). Studies on adults based on the Italian Society of Anatomic Pathology and Cytology (SIAPEC) classification, report ROM of 14.2% for TIR3a and 44.6% for TIR3b category, showing greater sensitivity in detecting malignancy. To date, no performance data are available about SIAPEC classification in pediatric age. Retrospective data were collected from 200 pediatric subjects with thyroid nodules in the period 2000–2020. The distribution of cytological categories after fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was 7 TIR1, 4 TIR1c, 22 TIR2, 14 TIR3a, 9 TIR3b, 3 TIR4, and 16 TIR5. The surgical approach was performed in 40/200 subjects, with total ROM of 65% (0% for TIR1-TIR3a, 77.8% for TIR3b, and 100% for TIR4–TIR5). Total FNAB accuracy was 95%, while the sensibility and specificity were 92.3 and 92.6%, respectively. The reported data seem to confirm a greater sensitivity of SIAPEC classification to identify malignancy within the indeterminate category also in pediatric age and not only in adulthood. This finding may orient clinicians toward clinical follow-up for the indeterminate TIR3a group and toward surgical approach with total thyroidectomy in the indeterminate TIR3b group, although this indication should be confirmed in further national multicenter studies including larger cohorts.
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