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Current Opinions And Areas Of Consensus On The Role Of The Cerebellum In Dystonia

Vikram G. Shakkottai, Amit Batla, K. Bhatia, William T Dauer, C. Dresel, M. Niethammer, D. Eidelberg, Robert S. Raike, Y. Smith, H. A. Jinnah, Ellen J. Hess, S. Meunier, M. Hallett, Rachel Fremont, K. Khodakhah, Mark S. LeDoux, T. Popa, C. Gallea, S. Lehéricy, Andreea C. Bostan, Peter L. Strick
Published 2016 · Psychology, Medicine

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AbstractA role for the cerebellum in causing ataxia, a disorder characterized by uncoordinated movement, is widely accepted. Recent work has suggested that alterations in activity, connectivity, and structure of the cerebellum are also associated with dystonia, a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal and sustained muscle contractions often leading to abnormal maintained postures. In this manuscript, the authors discuss their views on how the cerebellum may play a role in dystonia. The following topics are discussed:The relationships between neuronal/network dysfunctions and motor abnormalities in rodent models of dystonia.Data about brain structure, cerebellar metabolism, cerebellar connections, and noninvasive cerebellar stimulation that support (or not) a role for the cerebellum in human dystonia.Connections between the cerebellum and motor cortical and sub-cortical structures that could support a role for the cerebellum in dystonia. Overall points of consensus include:Neuronal dysfunction originating in the cerebellum can drive dystonic movements in rodent model systems.Imaging and neurophysiological studies in humans suggest that the cerebellum plays a role in the pathophysiology of dystonia, but do not provide conclusive evidence that the cerebellum is the primary or sole neuroanatomical site of origin.
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