Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Osteological Evidence Of Violence During The Formation Of The Chinese Northern Nomadic Cultural Belt In The Bronze Age

Qun Zhang, Xue-zhou Li, Qian Wang, Hui‐Yuan Yeh, H. Zhu, Yanguo Qin, Quanchao Zhang
Published 2019 · Geography

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy Visualize in Litmaps
Share
Reduce the time it takes to create your bibliography by a factor of 10 by using the world’s favourite reference manager
Time to take this seriously.
Get Citationsy
This paper presents the analyses of skeletal remains of the fifth century BC nomads from Jinggouzi Cemetery on the frontier of northern China. The mortality and trauma prevalence of the population are investigated with two projectile injuries with arrowhead embedded on the ilium and vertebra analyzed in detail. The demographic and traumatic profiles show a high risk of mortality at a young age. Macroscopic and microscopic observations on the projectile injuries show no signs of healing, which indicate that they were perimortem trauma and probably the cause of death. Radiography and computed tomography reconstruction provides detailed information about the shape of the arrowhead and the mechanism of the injuries. The bronze arrowheads can be classified as a tri-winged socketed arrowhead and both of the injuries could be not fatal. Based on the shape of the arrowheads and the cultural period, the injured individuals may represent the nomadic invader to the region who fought with locals. During the Late Bronze Age in northern Asia, the immigration due to the climatic changes and demographic pressures may be causally linked to the social conflict in this region and accelerated the formation of the Chinese northern nomadic cultural belt which initiated the beginning of a new era in Chinese history. The analysis of the skeletal remains from Jinggouzi Cemetery enriches the understanding of the process of integration in northern China and cumulatively provides valuable evidence for the reconstruction of the history of east Eurasia.
This paper references
GY Chen (1931)
Chronology of natural disasters and wars
GY Chen (1931)
10.2307/2143889
Inner Asian frontiers of China
O. Lattimore (1940)
O Lattimore (1940)
10.2307/3278134
Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Justus F. Mueller (1972)
10.5479/si.00810223.28.1
Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains
D. Ortner (1981)
DR Brothwell (1981)
Heritage Editorial Board (1981)
Digging up bones, 3rd edn. British Museum (Natural History)
DR Brothwell (1981)
10.2307/634024
Climate, history, and the modern world
H. Lamb (1982)
HH Lamb (1982)
TL Stedman (1982)
10.1016/0031-0182(83)90087-1
Could climatic change have had an influence on the Polynesian migrations
H. Bridgman (1983)
10.1016/0033-5894(83)90035-2
Human response to environmental change in the perspective of future, global climate
K. Butzer (1983)
Population migrations as a response to population stress, based on a discussion on Chinese migrations in historical times
WL Zhao (1985)
WL Zhao (1985)
WR Maples (1986)
Trauma analysis by the forensic anthropologist
WR Maples (1986)
Research on the Bupper culture of Xiajiadian^ and its origin
FY Jin (1987)
Research on the Bupper culture of Xiajiadian^ and its origin
FY Jin (1987)
FY Jin (1987)
10.1007/BF00142964
Relationship between climatic change and the nomadic southward migrations in eastern Asia during historical times
Jin-qi Fang (1992)
Brief history of immigration in China
JX Ge (1993)
JX Ge (1993)
Social Complexity in North China during the Early Bronze Age: A Comparative Study of the Erlitou and Lower Xiajiadian Cultures
Gideon Shelach (1994)
Early Bronze Age cultures in North China
G Shelach (1994)
G Shelach (1994)
10.2307/506520
Nomads of the Eurasian steppes in the early Iron Age
J. Davis-Kimball (1995)
10.1017/CBO9780511552182
Palaeopathology of Aboriginal Australians: List of tables
S. Webb (1995)
A primary study on the environmental archaeology in the China northern Great Wall region
GJ Tian (1995)
J Davis-Kimball (1995)
10.1002/(SICI)1099-1212(199601)6:1<2::AID-OA244>3.0.CO;2-R
Applying forensic techniques to interpret cranial fracture patterns in an archaeological specimen
H. Berryman (1996)
10.1002/(SICI)1099-1417(199611/12)11:6<451::AID-JQS275>3.0.CO;2-9
Archaeological and palaeoecological indications of an abrupt climate change in The Netherlands, and evidence for climatological teleconnections around 2650 BP
B. Geel (1996)
10.1002/(SICI)1099-1212(199703)7:2<190::AID-OA306>3.0.CO;2-S
PALAEOPATHOLOGY OF ABORIGINAL AUSTRALIANS. HEALTH AND DISEASE ACROSS A HUNTER–GATHERER CONTINENT
S. Collins (1997)
10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(1997)25+<139::AID-AJPA6>3.0.CO;2-#
Trauma analysis in paleopathology
N. Lovell (1997)
10.1017/S0033822200018403
The sharp rise of 14C around 800 cal BC: possible causes, related climatic teleconnections and the impact on human environments.
B. Geel (1997)
10.1017/CBO9780511802676
Bioarchaeology: General index
C. Larsen (1997)
Violence against women : raiding and abduction in prehistoric Michigan
DL Martin (1997)
Violence against women: raiding and abduction in prehistoric Michigan. In: Martin DL, Frayer DW (eds) Troubled times: violence and warfare in the past
RG Wilkinson (1997)
Patterns of violence in prehistoric huntergatherer societies of coastal southern California
PM Lambert (1997)
PL Walker (1997)
Bioarchaeology. Interpreting behaviour from the human skeleton
CS Larsen (1997)
RG Wilkinson (1997)
Violence against women : raiding and abduction in prehistoric Michigan
DL Martin (1997)
Violence against women : raiding and abduction in prehistoric Michigan
RG Wilkinson (1997)
DL Martin (1997)
PM Lambert (1997)
Violence against women in the La Plata River valley (A.D. 1000–1300)
DL Martin (1997)
NJ Sauer (1998)
The timing of injuries and manner of death: distinguishing among antemortem, perimortem and postmortem trauma
NJ Sauer (1998)
10.1007/BF02446275
Warfare in prehistoric and early historic eastern North America
G. Milner (1999)
10.1017/chol9780521470308
The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC
M. Loewe (1999)
10.1017/CHOL9780521470308.015
The Northern Frontier in Pre–Imperial China
Nicola Di Cosmo (1999)
A Galloway (1999)
Research on the bronzes of the Bupper culture of Xiajiadian^
GX Liu (2000)
Battle-related trauma. In: Fiorato V, Boylston A, Knüsel CJ (eds) Blood red roses: the archaeology of a mass grave from Towton, AD 1461
S Novak (2000)
S Novak (2000)
GX Liu (2000)
10.1146/ANNUREV.ANTHRO.30.1.573
A BIOARCHAEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE HISTORY OF VIOLENCE
P. Walker (2001)
边疆考古研究 : 中国北方长城地带青铜文化考古国际研讨会论文集 = Research of China's frontier archaeology
教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地吉林大学边疆考古研究中心 (2002)
10.1080/03612759.2002.10526354
Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History
James Stanlaw (2002)
10.1029/2003GL017352
Cyclic rapid warming on centennial‐scale revealed by a 2650‐year stalagmite record of warm season temperature
M. Tan (2003)
10.1016/B978-012528628-2/50045-4
CHAPTER 8 – Trauma
D. Ortner (2003)
10.4324/9780203987957
Political frontiers, ethnic boundaries, and human geographies in Chinese history
Nicola Di Cosmo (2003)
Y Lin (2003)
ND Cosmo (2003)
The formation process of the nomadic belt in Chinese northern Great Wall region during the Xia Dynasty to the Warring States Period
Y Lin (2003)
The formation process of the nomadic belt in Chinese northern Great Wall region during the Xia Dynasty to the Warring States Period
Y Lin (2003)
M Tan (2003)
The reconstruction of the funerary behavior of the Dashanqian site
AH Rohn (2003)
AH Rohn (2003)
OSTEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR MESOLITHIC AND NEOLITHIC VIOLENCE: PROBLEMS OF INTERPRETATION
M. Jackes (2004)
10.5860/choice.43-2927
The Origins of War: Violence in Prehistory
J. Guilaine (2004)
JH Yang (2004)
MK Jackes (2004)
The formation of Chinese northern Frontier Belt during the spring-autumn and Warring States Period
JH Yang (2004)
JL Zheng (2004)
ND Cosmo (2004)
10.1002/9780470773819
The Origins of War
J. Guilaine (2005)
10.1186/1742-4682-3-8
Sepsis progression and outcome: a dynamical model
S. Zuev (2005)
A research on the western area cemetery at Jinggouzi and relative problems
ZJ Wu (2005)
Grossschmidt K (2005) Head injuries of Roman gladiators
F Kanz (2005)
Grossschmidt K (2005) Head injuries of Roman gladiators
F Kanz (2005)
10.1016/J.FORSCIINT.2005.10.010
Head injuries of Roman gladiators.
F. Kanz (2006)
The golden deer of Eurasia : perspectives on the steppe nomads of the ancient world
J. Aruz (2006)
10.1007/S10584-005-9024-Z
Climatic Change, Wars and Dynastic Cycles in China Over the Last Millennium
D. Zhang (2006)
TJ Barfield (2006)
Researches on bronze arrows before Qin Dynasty in northern China
Y Shi (2006)
Steppe nomadic culture and political organization
J Aruz (2006)
Wars and dynastic cycles in China over the last millennium
DD Zhang (2006)
HF (2006)Wars and dynastic cycles in China over the last millennium
DD Zhang (2006)
10.1002/AJPA.20585
Traumatic injuries and imperialism: the effects of Egyptian colonial strategies at Tombos in upper Nubia.
M. Buzon (2007)
A Research on the Ancient Human Bones Unearthed from the Jinggouzi Cemetery in Linxi County,Inner Mongolia
Zhu Hong (2007)
10.1016/J.FORSCIINT.2006.05.018
Forensic anthropology: developments of a classical discipline in the new millennium.
C. Cattaneo (2007)
10.2307/j.ctt1cd0nw1.14
Battle-related trauma
Shannon Novak (2007)
10.1073/pnas.0703073104
Global climate change, war, and population decline in recent human history
D. Zhang (2007)
H Zhu (2007)
The archery culture among nomadic populations in ancient northern China
FX Cui (2007)
FX Cui (2007)
The demographic comparative analysis of the populations in central and eastern Inner Mongolia in Pre-Qin Period
Y Tian (2007)
10.1511/2008.70.3641
Mesa Verde Migrations
T. Kohler (2008)
10.1002/9780470774670.CH7
Early Communities in East Asia: Economic and Sociopolitical Organization at the Local and Regional Levels
A. Underhill (2008)
A study on the cemeteries in Daihai area during the Warring States Period
C Chen (2008)
10.1016/J.JAS.2009.01.008
The warriors of the steppes: osteological evidence of warfare and violence from Pazyryk tumuli in the Mongolian Altai
X. Jordana (2009)
10.1017/cbo9780511552182
Palaeopathology of Aboriginal Australians: Health and Disease across a Hunter-Gatherer Continent
Stephen H. Webb (2009)
Research on the bronze arrowhead from Northeast China during Pre-Qin Period
Y Shi (2009)
Y Shi (2009)
10.7183/0002-7316.75.3.497
The Depopulation of Sand Canyon Pueblo, A Large Ancestral Pueblo Village in Southwestern Colorado
Kristin A. Kuckelman (2010)
QC Zhang (2010)
LX Wang (2010)
Migration and amalgamation: geographical distributive characteristics of population in the south-middle area of Inner Mongolia in the Pre-Qin Period
QC Zhang (2010)
Migration and amalgamation: geographical distributive characteristics of population in the south-middle area of Inner Mongolia in the Pre-Qin Period
QC Zhang (2010)
QC Zhang (2010)
A research on the skeletons of Xindianzi graveyard, Helingge’er county, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
QC Zhang (2010)
10.1073/pnas.1104268108
The causality analysis of climate change and large-scale human crisis
D. Zhang (2011)
10.3378/027.084.0402
Genetic Data Suggests that the Jinggouzi People are Associated with the Donghu, an Ancient Nomadic Group of North China
Haijing Wang (2012)
10.1126/science.1235367
Quantifying the Influence of Climate on Human Conflict
S. Hsiang (2013)
10.5744/florida/9780813044279.003.0009
Conflict and trauma among nomadic pastoralists on China's northern frontier
J. Eng (2013)
JT Eng (2013)
10.4324/9781315078328
Troubled Times : Violence and Warfare in the Past
D. Frayer (2014)
10.4324/9781315078328-15
Wife Beating, Boxing, and Broken Noses: Skeletal Evidence for the Cultural Patterning of Violence
D. Frayer (2014)
Broken Bones: Anthropological Analysis of Blunt Force Trauma
Vicki L. Wedel (2014)
10.4324/9781315078328-12
Violence Against Women in the La Plata River Valley (A.D. 1000-1300)
D. Frayer (2014)
HL Chen (2014)
A study on the issues of Xiaoheishigou site
HL Chen (2014)
A study on the issues of Xiaoheishigou site
HL Chen (2014)
H Zhu (2015)
The racial types of ancient population in the Inner Mongolia-Great Wall region. In: Zhu H (ed) The physical anthropological research on the ancient Chinese
H Zhu (2015)
Research on the bronze arrowhead from Inner Mongolian Great Wall region during the East Zhou Period
Y Shi (2015)
Research on the bronze from the west cemetery in Jinggouzi, Liaoxi ChiFeng region
LH Li (2015)
The racial types of ancient population in the Inner Mongolia - Great Wall region
H Zhu (2015)
Research on the bronze from the west cemetery in Jinggouzi, Liaoxi ChiFeng region
LH Li (2015)
Y Shi (2015)
Research on the issues on the East Zhou cemeteries in Daihai region
M Tan (2017)
RC Redfern (2017)
JS Sun (2017)
10.1017/9780511978579
Injury and Trauma in Bioarchaeology: Interpreting Violence in Past Lives
R. Redfern (2020)



This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar