Please confirm you are human (Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search
Assessment Of Spinal Cord Injury By Counting Corticospinal And Rubrospinal Neurons
R. Midha, M. Fehlings, C. Tator, J. Saint-Cyr, A. Guha
Published 1987 · Medicine
Save to my Library
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
This paper describes an objective, quantifiable technique for assaying the degree of severity of spinal cord injury. Twenty-one rats underwent a C7-T1 laminectomy: 12 received a C8 spinal cord clip compression injury with forces of either 2.3, 16.9 or 53.0 g; 4 had cord transection at C8, and 5 had no cord lesion. Postoperative clinical neurological assessment was performed by the inclined plane method. At 4 weeks, the spinal cord-injured rats underwent a T10 transection and insertion of a Gelfoam pledget impregnated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). HRP was similarly administered to 9 normal rats. Longitudinal sections of the spinal cord encompassing the injury site were stained with Luxol fast blue, and coronal sections from the cerebrum and midbrain were processed for HRP reactivity with tetramethylbenzidine. Labelled corticospinal and rubrospinal neurons were counted in every 6th section to derive a cortical score (CS) and a red nucleus score (RNS) for each animal. The CS reflected the extent of the pathological changes at the site of cord injury and the ln CS decreased linearly with increasing injury severity (P less than 0.0001). In contrast, the RNS was only reduced in animals with severe (53.0 g) cord injuries (P less than 0.0006). The degree of preservation of the dorsal columns including the corticospinal tracts at the injury site correlated with the CS, whereas the RNS was related to the degree of preservation of the lateral columns. Counts of rubrospinal neurons, but not corticospinal neurons, correlated closely (r = 0.96, P less than 0.001) with the inclined plane results, suggesting the importance of non-pyramidal tracts in controlling gross motor function. Thus, counting corticospinal and rubrospinal neurons is an objective, reliable test of the severity of experimental spinal cord injury.
This paper references
The microvasculature in transitory traumatic paraplegia. An electron microscopic study in the monkey.
G. Dohrmann (1971)
The motor cortex of the rat: Cytoarchitecture and microstimulation mapping
J. Donoghue (1982)
Somatotopic organization of corticospinal and corticotrigeminal neurons in the rat
S. Wise (1979)
Cell death and changes in the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase in rubrospinal neurons following spinal cord hemisection in the adult rat
H. Goshgarian (1983)
Peripheral nerve autografts to the rat spinal cord: Studies with axonal tracing methods
P. Richardson (1982)
Clinical signs and evoked response alterations associated with chronic experimental cord compression.
J. Schramm (1983)
Rubrospinal projections in the rat
L. T. Brown (1974)
Effect of duration of acute spinal cord compression in a new acute cord injury model in the rat.
Rivlin As (1978)
Methods for counting neurons
B. Konigsmark (1970)
A model of spinal cord injury.
E. Eidelberg (1976)
Growth and target finding by axons of the corticospinal tract in prenatal and postnatal rats
D. Schreyer (1982)
A cytoarchitectonic and Golgi stody of the red nucleus in the rat
J. M. Reid (1975)
Estimation of nuclear population from microtome sections
M. Abercrombie (1946)
Pathological findings in acute experimental spinal cord trauma.
T. Ducker (1971)
Neurophysiological assessment of afferent and efferent conduction in the injured spinal cord of monkeys.
L. Deecke (1973)
Objective clinical assessment of motor function after experimental spinal cord injury in the rat.
A. Rivlin (1977)
Acute spinal cord injury in the rat: comparison of three experimental techniques.
M. Khan (1983)
Organization of motor and somatosensory neocortex in the albino rat
R. Hall (1974)
Effect of acute spinal cord injury on axonal counts in the pyramidal tract of rats.
C. Tator (1984)
Locomotion in vertebrates: central mechanisms and reflex interaction.
S. Grillner (1975)
Locating corticospinal neurons by retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase
S. Hicks (1977)
Descending nerve tracts in the spinal cord of the rat. I. Fibers from the midbrain
H. A. Waldron (1969)
Pathology of experimental spinal cord trauma. I. The necrotic lesion as a function of vascular injury.
Balentine Jd (1978)
Acetylcholinesterase activity in the red nucleus of the rat. Effects of rubrospinal tractotomy.
D. Gwyn (1971)
Consequences of spinal cord lesions upon motor function, with special reference to locomotor activity
E. Eidelberg (1981)
The phrenic nucleus of the albino rat: A correlative HRP and Golgi study
H. Goshgarian (1981)
The fasciculus cerebro‐spinalis in the albino rat
S. W. Ranson (1913)
A sensitive low artifact TMB procedure for the demonstration of WGA-HRP in the CNS
A. Gibson (1984)
Dimethylsulfoxide action on fast axoplasmic transport and ultrastructure of vagal axons
J. A. Donoso (1977)
Sources of descending afferents to the inferior olive from the upper brain stem in the cat as revealed by the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase
J. Saint-Cyr (1981)
A new method for testing the force of clips for aneurysms or experimental spinal cord compression.
E. J. Dolan (1979)
Fixation variables in horseradish peroxidase neurohistochemistry. I. The effect of fixation time and perfusion procedures upon enzyme activity.
D. Rosene (1978)
Experimental spinal cord injury produced by slow, graded compression. Alterations of cortical and spinal evoked potentials.
J. Schramm (1979)
REMARKS ON THE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE SPINAL CORD DUE TO IMPACT. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
Alfred Reginald Allen (1914)
Arterial vascularization of the spinal cord. Recent studies of the anastomotic substitution pathways.
G. Lazorthes (1971)
Regeneration of long spinal axons in the rat
P. Richardson (1984)
Tetramethyl benzidine for horseradish peroxidase neurohistochemistry: a non-carcinogenic blue reaction product with superior sensitivity for visualizing neural afferents and efferents.
M. Mesulam (1978)
The effect of previous transection on quantitative estimates of the preganglionic neurones projecting in the cervical sympathetic trunk of the guinea-pig and the cat made by retrograde labelling of damaged axons by horseradish peroxidase
U. Wesselmann (1984)
Changes in the magnocellular portion of the red nucleus following thoracic hemisection in the neonatal and adult rat
J. Prendergast (1976)
Localization of a descending pathway in the spinal cord which is necessary for controlled treadmill locomotion
J. Steeves (1980)
THE INFLUENCE OF DIMETHYL SULFOXIDE ON CELLULAR ULTRASTRUCTURE AND CYTOCHEMISTRY *
E. Sandborn (1975)
Histopathology of transitory traumatic paraplegia in the monkey.
F. Wagner (1971)
Projections and termination of the corticospinal tract in rodents
L. T. Brown (1971)
Functional significance of ventral descending tracts of the spinal cord in the cat.
Z. Afelt (1974)
Experimental decompression of spinal cord.
Bennett Mh (1977)
This paper is referenced by
The effect of the sodium channel blocker QX-314 on recovery after acute spinal cord injury.
S. Agrawal (1997)
Evaluation of the neuroprotective effects of sodium channel blockers after spinal cord injury: improved behavioral and neuroanatomical recovery with riluzole.
G. Schwartz (2001)
Current and future progress in treating Spinal Cord Injury
Effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in experimental spinal cord injury: a quantitative histopathologic study.
K. Takami (1991)
Immunoglobulin G: A Potential Immuno-modulatory Therapy for Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury
D. Nguyen (2012)
Use of serotonin immunocytochemistry as a marker of injury severity after experimental spinal trauma in rats
A. Faden (1988)
Plexin expression in axotomized rubrospinal and facial motoneurons
E. Spinelli (2005)
Response of spinal cord blood flow to the nitric oxide inhibitor nitroarginine.
P. Hitchon (1996)
Problematic issues in spinal cord injury.
E. Hogan (1992)
Animal Models of Spinal Cord Injury
A. Blight (2000)
Diversity and dynamics of rare and of resident bacterial populations in coastal sands
Angélique Gobet (2012)
The effect of nimodipine and dextran on axonal function and blood flow following experimental spinal cord injury.
M. Fehlings (1989)
Muscular Adaptations and Novel Magnetic Resonance Characterizations of Spinal Cord Injury
W. Lim (2015)
Sexual dimorphism in the spontaneous recovery from spinal cord injury: a gender gap in beneficial autoimmunity?
E. Hauben (2002)
Spinal cord injury produced by consistent mechanical displacement of the cord in rats: behavioral and histologic analysis.
D. Behrmann (1992)
Evaluation of blood vessel and neurite growth into a collagen matrix placed within a surgically created gap in rat spinal cord
J. B. Gelderd (1990)
Vaccination with a Nogo-A-derived peptide after incomplete spinal-cord injury promotes recovery via a T-cell-mediated neuroprotective response: Comparison with other myelin antigens
E. Hauben (2001)
Horseradish peroxidase retrograde labeling of primary sensory neurons: A comparison of four intraspinal applicaton methods
P. Dam-Hieu (2001)
Characterizing the temporal development of cardiovascular dysfunction and examining morphology and function of resistance mesenteric vasculature in a T3 experimental spinal cord injury rodent model
David W Popok (2016)
Upregulation of Kv 1.4 protein and gene expression after chronic spinal cord injury
Lori Edwards (2002)
Growth factor enhancement of peripheral nerve regeneration through a novel synthetic hydrogel tube.
R. Midha (2003)
Neural circuitry of the adult rat central nervous system after spinal cord injury: a study using fast blue and the Bartha strain of pseudorabies virus.
E. Kim (2002)
Characterization of axonal ultrastructural pathology following experimental spinal cord compression injury
D. L. Anthes (1995)
Rubrospinal neurons and retrograde transport of Fluoro-Gold in acute spinal cord injury — a dose-response curve
W. Naso (1993)
Residual descending motor pathways influence spasticity after spinal cord injury
S. Sangari (2019)
The effects of intrathecal injection of a hyaluronan-based hydrogel on inflammation, scarring and neurobehavioural outcomes in a rat model of severe spinal cord injury associated with arachnoiditis.
J. Austin (2012)
Brainstem-evoked muscle potentials: their prognostic value in experimental spinal cord injury in the rat.
T. Sun (2000)
Clip Impact-Compression Model
C. Tator (2019)
The relationships among the severity of spinal cord injury, motor and somatosensory evoked potentials and spinal cord blood flow.
M. Fehlings (1989)
The effect of direct-current field on recovery from experimental spinal cord injury.
M. Fehlings (1988)
Development and characterization of a novel, graded model of clip compressive spinal cord injury in the mouse: Part 2. Quantitative neuroanatomical assessment and analysis of the relationships between axonal tracts, residual tissue, and locomotor recovery.
M. Joshi (2002)
New assessment techniques for evaluation of posttraumatic spinal cord function in the rat.
H. van de Meent (1996)See more