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On The Fundamental Fluid Transport Mechanisms Through Normal And Pathological Articular Cartilage During Function - II. The Analysis, Solution And Conclusions.
Published 1976 · Materials Science, Medicine
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Abstract The articulating process of synovial joints is represented by a spatially fixed cyclically time varying normal surface traction applied over a layered model of the cartilage-subchondral bone system. A two-phase mechanically interacting mixture is used to represent the solid matrix and the interstitial fluid of the cartilage continuum. The resulting equations of motion may be reduced to the currently employed physical laws used to describe the transport of fluid through the tissue, i.e. Darcy's law and Biot's consolidation equations. These equations were simplified by an order of magnitude analysis, and the resulting equations were solved by a double Fourier-Laplace transform procedure. The analytical solution shows that the fluid transport mechanism is strongly dependent upon a nondimensional parameter defined by ϵ 12 = Nk h 2 ω . This parameter is the ratio of the force required to deform the tissue as a whole to the force of frictional resistance due to the rate of movement of the interstitial fluid relative to the solid matrix. It is found that during normal function of healthy articular cartilage the consolidation effects will dominate the movement of interstitial fluid. In degenerative cartilage, as characterized by increasing the surface porosity and permeability and a decrease in tissue stiffness, the direct pressure effects, i.e. Darcy's law, becomes comparable to those of consolidation.