← Back to Search
Viral Inhibition Of Inflammation: Cowpox Virus Encodes An Inhibitor Of The Interleukin-1β Converting Enzyme
C. Ray, R. Black, S. Kronheim, T. Greenstreet, D. Pickup
Published 1992 · Biology, Medicine
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
Cowpox virus effectively inhibits inflammatory responses against viral infection in the chick embryo. This study demonstrates that one of the viral genes necessary for this inhibition, the crmA gene (a cytokine response modifier gene), encodes a serpin that is a specific inhibitor of the interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme. This serpin can prevent the proteolytic activation of interleukin-1 beta, thereby suppressing an interleukin-1 beta response to infection. However, the modification of this single cytokine response is not sufficient to inhibit inflammatory responses. This suggests that cowpox virus encodes several cytokine response modifiers that act together to inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to infection. These viral countermeasures to host defenses against infection may contribute significantly to the pathology associated with poxvirus infections.
This paper references
Cap-independent translation of mRNA conferred by encephalomyocarditis virus 5' sequence improves the performance of the vaccinia virus/bacteriophage T7 hybrid expression system.
O. Elroy-Stein (1989)
Spontaneous deletions and duplications of sequences in the genome of cowpox virus.
D. Pickup (1984)
Substrate specificity of the protease that processes human interleukin-1 beta.
P. Sleath (1990)
New mammalian expression vectors
B. Moss (1990)
Determination of intermediates, products and cleavage site in the reaction between plasminogen activator inhibitor type‐2 and urokinases
U. Kiso (1988)
Molecular cloning of the interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme.
D. Cerretti (1992)
The reactive site of human alpha 2-antiplasmin.
B. Shieh (1987)
Activation of interleukin‐ 1β by a co‐induced protease
R. Black (1989)
Vaccinia virus homologues of the Shope fibroma virus inverted terminal repeat proteins and a discontinuous ORF related to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family.
S. Howard (1991)
Hemorrhage in lesions caused by cowpox virus is induced by a viral protein that is related to plasma protein inhibitors of serine proteases.
D. Pickup (1986)
Inhibition of an inflammatory response is mediated by a 38-kDa protein of cowpox virus.
G. Palumbo (1989)
Interleukin 1 gene expression in adult T cell leukemia.
Y. Wano (1987)
Identification of a monocyte specific pre-interleukin 1 beta convertase activity.
M. Kostura (1989)
Inflammatory responses and the generation of chemoattractant activity in cowpox virus-infected tissues.
T. P. Chua (1990)
DNA sequence analysis with a modified bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase. Effect of pyrophosphorolysis and metal ions.
S. Tabor (1990)
The serpins: evolution and adaptation in a family of protease inhibitors.
R. Carrell (1987)
Dissociation between interleukin-1 beta mRNA and protein synthesis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
R. Schindler (1990)
AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma-derived cells express cytokines with autocrine and paracrine growth effects.
B. Ensoli (1989)
Myxoma virus expresses a secreted protein with homology to the tumor necrosis factor receptor gene family that contributes to viral virulence.
C. Upton (1991)
Eukaryotic transient-expression system based on recombinant vaccinia virus that synthesizes bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase.
T. R. Fuerst (1986)
The complete DNA sequence of vaccinia virus.
S. Goebel (1990)
Interleukin-1 and interleukin-1 antagonism.
C. Dinarello (1991)
IL-1-converting enzyme requires aspartic acid residues for processing of the IL-1 beta precursor at two distinct sites and does not cleave 31-kDa IL-1 alpha.
A. Howard (1991)
Determination of the minimum polypeptide lengths of the functionally active sites of human interleukins 1 alpha and 1 beta.
B. Mosley (1987)
Vaccinia virus encodes a family of genes with homology to serine proteinase inhibitors.
G. Smith (1989)
Primary structure of the reactive site of human C1-inhibitor.
G. Salvesen (1985)
DNA sequence analysis with a modified bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase.
S. Tabor (1987)
Structural evidence for methionine at the reactive site of human alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor.
D. Johnson (1978)
Implications of the three-dimensional structure of alpha 1-antitrypsin for structure and function of serpins.
R. Huber (1989)
A receptor for tumor necrosis factor defines an unusual family of cellular and viral proteins.
C. Smith (1990)
Purification and characterization of human recombinant precursor interleukin 1 beta.
D. Hazuda (1989)
Vaccinia virus encodes two proteins that are structurally related to members of the plasma serine protease inhibitor superfamily.
G. Kotwal (1989)
The kinetics of interleukin 1 secretion from activated monocytes. Differences between interleukin 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta.
D. Hazuda (1988)
Amino acid sequence at the reactive site of human alpha 1-antichymotrypsin.
M. Morii (1983)
Single-step purification of polypeptides expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions with glutathione S-transferase.
D. Smith (1988)
Generation of biologically active interleukin-1 beta by proteolytic cleavage of the inactive precursor.
R. Black (1988)
Local production of tumor necrosis factor encoded by recombinant vaccinia virus is effective in controlling viral replication in vivo.
S. K. Sambhi (1991)
Acute inflammatory response to cowpox virus infection of the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo.
T. Fredrickson (1992)
A poxvirus-derived vector that directs high levels of expression of cloned genes in mammalian cells.
D. Patel (1988)
Structural evidence for leucine at the reactive site of heparin cofactor II.
M. Griffith (1985)
General method for production and selection of infectious vaccinia virus recombinants expressing foreign genes.
M. Mackett (1984)
The thrombin cleavage site in bovine antithrombin
H. Jörnvall (1979)
Human herpesvirus 6 induces interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha, but not interleukin-6, in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures.
L. Flamand (1991)
T2 open reading frame from the Shope fibroma virus encodes a soluble form of the TNF receptor.
C. Smith (1991)
Plasminogen activator inhibitor type‐1 : reactive center and amino‐terminal heterogeneity determined by protein and cDNA sequencing
P. Andreasen (1986)
Two vaccinia virus proteins structurally related to the interleukin-1 receptor and the immunoglobulin superfamily.
G. Smith (1991)
A novel IL‐1 receptor, cloned from B cells by mammalian expression, is expressed in many cell types.
C. J. Mcmahan (1991)
This paper is referenced by
Yama/CPP32β, a mammalian homolog of CED-3, is a CrmA-inhibitable protease that cleaves the death substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase
M. Tewari (1995)
Life, death, and the pursuit of apoptosis.
E. White (1996)
The cell-death machine
A. Chinnaiyan (1996)
FLICE, A Novel FADD-Homologous ICE/CED-3–like Protease, Is Recruited to the CD95 (Fas/APO-1) Death-Inducing Signaling Complex
M. Muzio (1996)
A Cytosolic Granzyme B Inhibitor Related to the Viral Apoptotic Regulator Cytokine Response Modifier A Is Present in Cytotoxic Lymphocytes*
J. Sun (1996)
Caspase cleavage product lacking amino‐terminus of IκBα sensitizes resistant cells to TNF‐α and TRAIL‐induced apoptosis *
K. Kim (2002)
Decreased Intracellular Superoxide Levels Activate Sindbis Virus-induced Apoptosis*
K. Lin (1999)
The Therapeutic Potential of Modifying Inflammasomes and NOD-Like Receptors
F. Di Virgilio (2013)
Rho-dependent regulation of cell spreading by the tetraspan membrane protein Gas3/PMP22.
C. Brancolini (1999)
Interleukin-18 regulates both Th1 and Th2 responses.
K. Nakanishi (2001)
Development of a replication-selective, oncolytic poxvirus for the treatment of human cancers
H. Zeh (2002)
Proteinases and their inhibitors in the immune system.
M. Eijk (2003)
Signaling pathways and genes that inhibit pathogen-induced macrophage apoptosis--CREB and NF-kappaB as key regulators.
J. Park (2005)
Activation of the IFN-inducible enzyme RNase L causes apoptosis of animal cells.
M. Diaz-Guerra (1997)
Implications de l'apoptose en pathologie
A. Biola (1999)
An ongoing pulmonary cowpox virus infection suppresses an immune response to OVA peptide delivered to the lungs
C. Hrusch (2011)
NAIPs: Building an Innate Immune Barrier against Pathogenic Bacteria
Eric M. Kofoed (2012)
Chemistry and Biology of Serpins
F. Church (1997)
Viewing BCL2 and cell death control from an evolutionary perspective
A. Strasser (2018)
Co-Inhibition von epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) und insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR):
Ä. Direktor (2007)
Gene therapy for transplantation with viral vectors – how much of the promise has been realised?
P. Tan (2006)
Reactive oxygen species at the crossroads of inflammasome and inflammation
Anantha Harijith (2014)
Structure and mechanism of interleukin-lβ converting enzyme
K. Wilson (1994)
Structural aspects of serpin inhibition
A. Schulze (1994)
Apoptosis: Breaking the ICE
M. D. Jacobson (1994)
Induction of apoptosis in fibroblasts by IL-1β-converting enzyme, a mammalian homolog of the C. elegans cell death gene ced-3
M. Miura (1993)
Chapter 21. Interleukin-1 as a Therapeutic Target
D. Tracey (1994)
Interleukin‐1βconverting enzyme: A novel cysteine protease required for IL‐1β production and implicated in programmed cell death
N. Thornberry (1995)
High-level expression and characterization of two serine protease inhibitors from Trichinella spiralis.
Z. Zhang (2016)
Allosteric modulation of caspases.
Hans-Georg Häcker (2011)
Genes of variola and vaccinia viruses necessary to overcome the host protective mechanisms
S. Shchelkunov (1993)
Cell death in platelets and megakaryocytes : implications for the maintenance of thrombostasis
M. C. H. Clarke (2002)See more