Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

The Distribution And Divergence Of DNA Sequences Related To The Tn21 And Tn501 Mer Operons.

M. Gilbert, A. Summers
Published 1988 · Biology, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
The mercury resistance (mer) operons of the Gram-negative bacterial transposons, Tn21 and Tn501, are phenotypically indistinguishable and have extensive DNA identity. However, Tn21 mer has an additional coding region (merC) in the middle of the operon which is lacking in Tn501 and there is also a discrete region of the mercuric ion reductase gene (merA) which differs markedly between the two operons. DNA fragment probes were used to determine the distribution of specific mer coding regions in two distinct collections of mercury-resistant (Hgr) Gram-negative bacteria. Colony blot hybridization analysis showed that merC-positive operons occur almost exclusively in Escherichia, although merC-negative operons can also be found in this genus. The merC-negative operons were found in Citrobacter, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter and in some Pseudomonas. Most of the Pseudomonas did not hybridize detectably with either of the two operons studied, indicating that they harbor an unrelated or more distantly related class of mercury resistance locus. Southern hybridization patterns demonstrated that the merC-positive mer operon is well conserved at the DNA level, whereas the merC-negative operons are much less conserved. The presence of merC also correlated with conservation of a specific variant region of the merA gene and with an antibiotic resistance pattern similar to that of Tn21. Tn501 appears to be an atypical example of the merC-negative subgroup of Hgr loci.
This paper references
10.1021/BI00286A014
Mercuric reductase: homology to glutathione reductase and lipoamide dehydrogenase. Iodoacetamide alkylation and sequence of the active site peptide.
B. Fox (1983)
10.1099/00221287-132-2-465
Transcriptional regulation of the mercury-resistance genes of transposon Tn501.
P. Lund (1986)
10.1016/0147-619X(88)90059-5
Molecular structure and interrelationships of multiresistance β-lactamase transposons
R. Levesque (1988)
10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.MOLBEV.A040307
Comparison of regulatory and structural regions of genes of tryptophan metabolism.
C. Yanofsky (1984)
10.1016/0378-1119(83)90170-1
Sequence homology between the tetracycline-resistance determinants of Tn10 and pBR322.
T. T. Nguyen (1983)
10.1016/0378-1119(85)90134-9
Mercuric reductase structural genes from plasmid R100 and transposon Tn501: functional domains of the enzyme.
T. Misra (1985)
10.1016/0378-1119(83)90040-9
Construction of improved M13 vectors using oligodeoxynucleotide-directed mutagenesis.
J. Norrander (1983)
10.1126/SCIENCE.176.4036.758
Transmissible multiple drug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.
J. Davies (1972)
10.1128/JB.157.2.690-693.1984
Standard reference strains of Escherichia coli from natural populations.
H. Ochman (1984)
10.1073/PNAS.81.19.5975
Mercuric ion-resistance operons of plasmid R100 and transposon Tn501: the beginning of the operon including the regulatory region and the first two structural genes.
T. Misra (1984)
10.1016/S0022-2836(75)80083-0
Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis.
E. M. Southern (1975)
10.1128/JB.169.7.3379-3384.1987
Overexpression and DNA-binding properties of the mer-encoded regulatory protein from plasmid NR1 (Tn21).
A. Heltzel (1987)
10.1021/BI00286A015
Nucleotide sequence of a gene from the Pseudomonas transposon Tn501 encoding mercuric reductase.
N. Brown (1983)
10.1089/DNA.1.1984.3.259
Restriction site bank vectors. II. DNA sequence analysis of plasmid pJRD158.
M. Heusterspreute (1984)
10.1016/0022-2836(84)90332-2
Structural relationship between glutathione reductase and lipoamide dehydrogenase.
D. Rice (1984)
10.3109/10408418709104455
The genetics and biochemistry of mercury resistance.
T. Foster (1987)
10.1126/SCIENCE.6346486
Clustered third-base substitutions among wild strains of Escherichia coli.
R. Milkman (1983)
Evolutionary divergence of the Citrobacter freundii tryptophan operon regulatory region: comparison with other enteric bacteria.
M. Blumenberg (1982)
10.1128/JB.153.3.1432-1438.1983
Evolution of complex resistance transposons from an ancestral mercury transposon.
M. Tanaka (1983)
10.1021/BI00370A063
Bacterial organomercurial lyase: overproduction, isolation, and characterization.
T. Begley (1986)
10.1128/JB.149.2.479-487.1982
Polypeptides encoded by the mer operon.
W. Jackson (1982)
The DNA sequence of the mercury resistance operon of the IncFII plasmid NR1.
P. Barrineau (1984)
10.1038/251335A0
Volatilisation of mercury and organomercurials determined by inducible R-factor systems in enteric bacteria
J. Schottel (1974)
10.1128/AAC.27.5.715
Five novel plasmid-determined beta-lactamases.
A. A. Medeiros (1985)
10.1093/NAR/11.17.6089
The tetracycline resistance determinants of RP1 and Tn1721: nucleotide sequence analysis.
S. H. Waters (1983)
10.1128/AAC.24.6.835
Frequency of tetracycline resistance determinant classes among lactose-fermenting coliforms.
B. Marshall (1983)
10.1128/JB.147.3.1110-1112.1981
Translocatable resistance to mercuric and phenylmercuric ions in soil bacteria.
A. Radford (1981)
10.1073/PNAS.72.10.3961
Colony hybridization: a method for the isolation of cloned DNAs that contain a specific gene.
M. Grunstein (1975)
10.1093/NAR/11.2.525
Nucleotide sequence of the Tn10 encoded tetracycline resistance gene.
W. Hillen (1983)
Experiments With Gene Fusions
T. Silhavy (1984)
10.1128/JB.155.2.690-703.1983
Tn5 insertion mutations in the mercuric ion resistance genes derived from plasmid R100.
N. Nibhriain (1983)
10.1128/JB.151.2.962-970.1982
Biochemical characterization of HgCl2-inducible polypeptides encoded by the mer operon of plasmid R100.
W. Jackson (1982)
10.1016/0003-2697(83)90418-9
A technique for radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity.
Andrew P. Feinberg (1983)
10.1016/0378-1119(86)90236-2
Polypeptides specified by the mercuric resistance (mer) operon of plasmid R100.
N. N. Bhriain (1986)
10.1016/0378-1119(85)90326-9
Versatile mercury-resistant cloning and expression vectors.
B. Gambill (1985)
10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.MOLBEV.A040334
The tetracycline repressor of pSC101.
M. A. Brow (1985)
10.1128/JB.162.2.773-776.1985
Some mercurial resistance plasmids from different incompatibility groups specify merR regulatory functions that both repress and induce the mer operon of plasmid R100.
T. Foster (1985)
10.1016/0147-619X(80)90101-8
Heterogeneity of tetracycline resistance determinants.
B. Méndez (1980)
10.1016/0378-1119(86)90315-X
A new tetracycline-resistance determinant, class E, isolated from Enterobacteriaceae.
B. Marshall (1986)
10.1146/ANNUREV.MI.40.100186.003135
Organization, expression, and evolution of genes for mercury resistance.
A. Summers (1986)
10.1128/JB.151.1.222-228.1982
Genetic and molecular characterization of Tn21, a multiple resistance transposon from R100.1.
F. de la Cruz (1982)
10.1016/0092-8674(83)90029-6
Expression of rRNA and tRNA genes in Escherichia coli: Evidence for feedback regulation by products of rRNA operons
S. Jinks-Robertson (1983)
10.1128/MMBR.36.4.525-557.1972
Pedigrees of some mutant strains of Escherichia coli K-12.
B. Bachmann (1972)
10.1146/ANNUREV.MI.32.100178.003225
Microbial transformations of metals.
A. Summers (1978)



This paper is referenced by
10.1016/0923-2508(94)90005-1
Cloning and expression of the mercury resistance genes of marine Pseudomonas sp. strain MR1 plasmid pMR1 in Escherichia coli.
D. Rani (1994)
10.1128/AEM.63.11.4494-4503.1997
Association of mercury resistance with antibiotic resistance in the gram-negative fecal bacteria of primates.
J. Wireman (1997)
10.1111/J.1574-6941.1999.TB00632.X
Conservation of transposon structures in soil bacteria
R. Holt (1999)
10.1016/0168-1656(91)90065-4
Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of mercuric ion resistance coding genes from Zymomonas mobilis.
T. Karunakaran (1991)
10.1128/AEM.63.3.1066-1076.1997
Phylogeny of mercury resistance (mer) operons of gram-negative bacteria isolated from the fecal flora of primates.
C. Liebert (1997)
10.1016/S0923-2508(01)01265-7
Mercury resistance transposons of gram-negative environmental bacteria and their classification.
S. Mindlin (2001)
10.1111/J.1574-6941.1998.TB00526.X
Diversity amongst Bacillus merA genes amplified from mercury resistant isolates and directly from mercury polluted soil
Mark C. Hart (1998)
bacteria of primates . antibiotic resistance in the gram-negative fecal Association of mercury resistance with
J. Wireman (1997)
10.1007/s002390010124
The Quality of merC, a Module of the mer Mosaic
C. Liebert (2000)
10.1016/0923-2508(92)90026-K
Hybridization of transposon Tn501 for detection of mercury resistance sequences in a marine environment.
S. Prabu (1992)
10.1128/AEM.59.12.4024-4030.1993
Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis shows divergence among mer determinants from gram-negative soil bacteria indistinguishable by DNA-DNA hybridization.
A. Osborn (1993)
10.1128/AEM.60.11.4059-4065.1994
merA gene expression in aquatic environments measured by mRNA production and Hg(II) volatilization.
S. Nazaret (1994)
10.1128/9781555818098.CH8
Microbial Mercury Reduction
J. Hobman (2000)
10.21608/JPP.2018.36342
Characterization of Some Extremely Halophilic Bacteria Isolated from Salt Marshes of Gamasa Egypt
A. Mohamedin (2018)
10.1128/AAC.37.4.825
Mercury released from dental "silver" fillings provokes an increase in mercury- and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in oral and intestinal floras of primates.
A. Summers (1993)
10.1007/BF00183064
Detection of the merA gene and its expression in the environment
W. Jeffrey (2004)
10.1093/CLINIDS/22.6.944
Resistance of the normal human microflora to mercury and antimicrobials after exposure to mercury from dental amalgam fillings.
C. Edlund (1996)
10.1111/J.1574-6941.1999.TB00655.X
Characterization of mercury resistance mechanisms in marine sediment microbial communities.
Reyes (1999)
10.1186/2191-0855-3-41
Mercurial-resistance determinants in Pseudomonas strain K-62 plasmid pMR68
Y. Sone (2013)
10.1096/fasebj.9.7.7737458
Mercury exposure from “silver” tooth fillings: emerging evidence questions a traditional dental paradigm
F. Lorscheider (1995)
Biotransformation of Thiomersal by Naturally Mercury Resistant Isolates and Genetically Engineered Microorganisms
W. Fehr (2006)
10.1111/J.1574-6976.1997.TB00300.X
Distribution, diversity and evolution of the bacterial mercury resistance (mer) operon.
A. M. Osborn (1997)
10.1099/00221287-144-3-609
Horizontal spread of mer operons among gram-positive bacteria in natural environments.
E. Bogdanova (1998)
10.1099/00221287-135-11-2909
Characterization of Pseudomonas mercury-resistance transposon Tn502, which has a preferred insertion site in RP1.
V. Stanisich (1989)
10.1146/ANNUREV.MICRO.50.1.753
Bacterial heavy metal resistance: new surprises.
S. Silver (1996)
Cloning of a mer operon from Naturally Occurring Aquatic Bacteria
J. Daniel (2004)
10.3389/fmicb.2017.01250
Cloning, Expression, Isotope Labeling, and Purification of Transmembrane Protein MerF from Mercury Resistant Enterobacter sp. AZ-15 for NMR Studies
A. Amin (2017)
10.1016/0147-619X(92)90002-R
Bacterial resistances to inorganic mercury salts and organomercurials.
T. Misra (1992)
10.1128/AAC.00274-06
Dissemination and Persistence of blaCTX-M-9 Are Linked to Class 1 Integrons Containing CR1 Associated with Defective Transposon Derivatives from Tn402 Located in Early Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids of IncHI2, IncP1-α, and IncFI Groups
A. Novais (2006)
Characterization of Pseudomonas Mercury-resistance
()
10.1016/S0923-2508(99)80076-X
Re-evaluation of antibiotic and mercury resistance in Escherichia coli populations isolated in 1978 from Amazonian rubber tree tappers and Indians.
A. A. Nascimento (1999)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar