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Molecular Pathobiology Of The Human Lipoprotein Lipase Gene.

V. Murthy, P. Julien, C. Gagne
Published 1996 · Biology, Medicine

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Lipoprotein lipase (LPL; E.C. 3.1.1.34) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of lipids. Many diseases, including obesity, coronary heart disease, chylomicronemia (pancreatitis), and atherosclerosis, appear to be directly or indirectly related to abnormalities in LPL function. Human LPL is a member of a superfamily of lipases that includes hepatic lipase and pancreatic lipase. These lipases are characterized by extensive homology, both at the level of the gene and the mature protein, suggesting that they have a common evolutionary origin. A large number of natural mutations have been discovered in the human LPL gene, which are located at different sites in the gene and affect different functions of the mature protein. There is a high prevalence of two of these mutations (207 and 188) in the Province of Québec, and one of them (207) is almost exclusive to the French-Canadian population. A study of these and other naturally occurring mutant LPL molecules, as well as those created in vitro by site-directed mutagenesis, indicate that the sequence of LPL is organized into multiple structural and functional units that act in concert in the normal enzyme. In this review, we discuss the interrelationships of LPL structure and its function, the molecular etiology of abnormal LPL in humans, and the clinical and therapeutic aspects of LPL deficiency.
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