Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Generation Of Masticatory Rhythm In The Brainstem

Y. Nakamura, N. Katakura
Published 1995 · Biology, Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Mastication is a typical rhythmical behavior in mammals. Like respiration, it is now generally accepted that the motor command for the basic pattern of rhythmical oral-facial movements is generated by a neuronal population in the brainstem (central pattern generator, CPG). The central pattern generation of rhythmical masticatory movements can be divided into three processes: (1) generation of the masticatory rhythm, (2) generation of a pattern of activities of the jaw, tongue and facial muscles, and (3) coordination of the activities of these muscles. There are several lines of evidence that the masticatory CPG is functionally subdivided into two neuronal groups: one for generation of the masticatory rhythm, giving the timing signal for rhythmical alternation of jaw closing and jaw opening (central rhythm generator, CRG), and the other for generation of the spatiotemporal pattern of activities of the jaw, tongue and facial muscles. This review will deal, first of all, with the localization of the CRG for rhythmical masticatory jaw movements, sources for its activation, and the premotor neurons mediating its output to the trigeminal motoneurons. Next, we will discuss the neurochemical basis for rhythmical trigeminal motoneurons activity as well as central masticatory rhythm generation. Finally, our recent attempt at induction of neural activities reflecting sucking movements (fictive sucking) in an in vitro preparation is presented.
This paper references
10.1016/0006-8993(85)90211-2
Effects of a serotonin agonist and antagonist on cortically induced rhythmical jaw movements in the anesthetized guinea pig
S. Chandler (1985)
10.1016/0304-3940(75)90040-3
Pericruciate cortical neurons projecting to brain stem reticular formation, dorsal column nuclei and spinal cord in the cat
C. E. Berrevoets (1975)
10.1097/00001756-199503000-00004
NMDA-induced rhythmical activity in XII nerve of isolated CNS from newborn rats.
N. Katakura (1995)
10.1002/CNE.902200303
Afferent projections to the oral motor nuclei in the rat
J. Travers (1983)
Origin of lingual proprioceptive afferents in Japanese monkey, M. fuscata fuscata. Studied by HRP-labeling technique.
K. Kubota (1988)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.06-06-01831.1986
The effects of brain stem transections on the neuronal networks responsible for rhythmical jaw muscle activity in the guinea pig
S. Chandler (1986)
10.1016/0006-8993(93)90625-W
Resetting of cortically induced rhythmical jaw movements by stimulation of the cerebellar interpositus nucleus in the guinea pig
T. Katayama (1993)
10.1016/0006-8993(67)90189-8
Nature of suppression of the masseteric monosynaptic reflex induced by stimulation of the orbital gyrus of the cat.
Y. Nakamura (1967)
10.1097/00001756-199507310-00027
Dual brain stem projection from the cortical masticatory area in guinea‐pig
S. Enomoto (1995)
10.1002/CNE.902140207
Brainstem projections to the normal and noradrenergically hyperinnervated trigeminal motor nucleus
J. Vornov (1983)
10.1016/0006-8993(77)90763-6
Activity of neurons in the region of the substantia nigra during feeding in the monkey
F. Mora (1977)
10.1016/0003-9969(86)90080-4
Growth of trigemino-cerebellar areas in infant rat studied by micrometric and cytophotometric methods.
G. Jacquart (1986)
10.1152/JN.1991.66.5.1564
Discharge patterns of trigeminal commissural last-order interneurons during fictive mastication in the rabbit.
R. Donga (1991)
10.1177/10454411910020010401
Mastication and its control by the brain stem.
J. Lund (1991)
10.1113/jphysiol.1964.sp007313
Secondary neurones within a trigemino‐cerebellar projection to the anterior lobe of the cerebellum in the cat
I. Darian-Smith (1964)
10.1016/0006-8993(88)91301-7
Phase-linked modulation of excitability of presynaptic terminals of low-threshold afferent fibers in the inferior alveolar nerve during cortically induced fictive mastication in the guinea pig
I. Kurasawa (1988)
10.1016/0006-8993(85)90314-2
The effects of a glycine antagonist (strychnine) on cortically induced rhythmical jaw movements in the anesthetized guinea pig
S. Chandler (1985)
10.1016/0304-3940(82)90241-5
Cortically induced effects on trigeminal motoneurons after transection of the brainstem at the pontobulbar junction in the cat
M. Katoh (1982)
10.1016/0014-4886(87)90019-7
Ingestion-related activity of caudate and entopeduncular neurons in the cat
J. Schneider (1987)
10.1152/JN.1988.60.4.1333
Single-unit activity in bulbar reticular formation during food ingestion in chronic cats.
K. Hiraba (1988)
10.1016/0006-8993(90)90249-B
The effects of nanoliter ejections of lidocaine into the pontomedullary reticular formation on cortically induced rhythmical jaw movements in the guinea pig
S. Chandler (1990)
10.1038/1741107B0
Lingual Proprioception in Pig, Dog and Cat
Mary E. Law (1954)
10.1093/BRAIN/100.2.239
Propriobulbar fibre connections to the trigeminal, facial and hypoglossal motor nuclei. I. An anterograde degeneration study in the cat.
G. Holstege (1977)
10.1037//0735-7044.106.3.539
Ontogeny of feeding motor patterns in infant rats: an electromyographic analysis of suckling and chewing.
M. Westneat (1992)
10.1016/0003-9969(84)90035-9
Phasic and rhythmic responses of the oral musculature to mechanical stimulation of the rat palate.
J. V. van Willigen (1984)
10.1016/0003-9969(73)90160-X
Properties of tongue and jaw movements elicited by stimulation of the orbital gyrus in the cat.
T. Morimoto (1973)
Physiologie nerveuse de la mastication chez le chat et le lapin. Reflexes de mastication. Reponses masticatrices corticales et centre cortical du gout
F. Bremer (1923)
Neural Control of Rhythmic Movements in Vertebrates
A. Cohen (1988)
10.1016/0166-2236(83)90219-9
The importance of reflexes and their control during jaw movement
J. Lund (1983)
10.1152/JN.1989.62.6.1225
Intracellular analysis of trigeminal motoneuron rhythmical activity during stimulation of pontomedullary reticular formation in anesthetized guinea pig.
S. M. Gurahian (1989)
10.1152/JN.1982.48.1.110
Relationship between jaw movements and trigeminal motoneuron membrane-potential fluctuations during cortically induced rhythmical jaw movements in the guinea pig.
L. Goldberg (1982)
10.1016/0006-8993(67)90004-2
Cortical projections to the red nucleus and the brain stem in the Rhesus monkey.
H. Kuypers (1967)
10.1016/0304-3940(85)90095-3
The effects of orofacial sensory input on spontaneously occurring and apomorphine-induced rhythmical jaw movements in the anesthetized guinea pig
S. Chandler (1985)
10.1113/jphysiol.1975.sp010853
Organization of climbing fibre projections to the cerebellar cortex from trigeminal cutaneous afferents and from the SI face area of the cerebral cortex in the cat.
T. Miles (1975)
10.1016/0024-3205(82)90291-0
Suppression of apomorphine-induced oral stereotypy in rats by microinjection of muscimol into midbrain.
P. Dean (1982)
10.1016/0006-8993(74)90230-3
The cortical projection of the orbital and proreate gyri to the sensory trigeminal nuclei in the cat. An experimental anatomical study.
J. Wold (1974)
10.1016/0006-8993(72)90374-5
Changes in LDH isoenzymes of brain developing in situ and in vitro.
H. Maker (1972)
10.1016/0304-3940(76)90050-1
Cells of origin of cortical projections to dorsal column nuclei, spinal cord and bulbar medial reticular formation in the rhesus monkey
C. E. Catsman-Berrevoets (1976)
Afferent influences on tongue muscle activity. A morphological and physiological study in the cat.
S. Blom (1960)
10.1016/0304-3940(87)90122-4
The effects of cortical ablation on mastication in the rabbit
S. Enomoto (1987)
Mammalian mastication : a review of the activity of the jaw muscles and the movements they produce in chewing
K. Hiiemae (1978)
10.1016/0306-4522(92)90371-8
Evidence that the masticatory muscles receive a direct innervation from cell group k in the rabbit
R. Donga (1992)
10.1016/0003-9969(84)90020-7
A micrometric and cytophotometric study of the simultaneous development of the cerebellar cortex and dental function in the rat during the early post-natal period.
O. Ehrmann (1984)
10.1002/CNE.902420105
The efferent projections from the reticular formation and the locus coeruleus studied by anterograde and retrograde axonal transport in the rat
B. Jones (1985)
10.1016/0006-8993(89)91329-2
An analysis of mandibular movement trajectories and masticatory muscle EMG activity during drinking in the guinea pig
G. Gerstner (1989)
10.2170/JJPHYSIOL.10.471
Analysis of jaw movements from the cortical jaw motor area and amygdala.
Y. Kawamura (1960)
10.1152/JN.1993.69.2.595
Trigeminal premotor neurons in the bulbar parvocellular reticular formation participating in induction of rhythmical activity of trigeminal motoneurons by repetitive stimulation of the cerebral cortex in the guinea pig.
S. Nozaki (1993)
10.1113/jphysiol.1984.sp015370
Respiratory rhythm generation in the in vitro brain stem‐spinal cord preparation of the neonatal rat.
T. Suzue (1984)
10.1113/jphysiol.1989.sp017792
The monosynaptic excitatory connections of single trigeminal interneurones to the V motor nucleus of the rat.
K. Appenteng (1989)
10.1016/0306-4522(91)90009-D
Projections from the rostral parvocellular reticular formation to pontine and medullary nuclei in the rat: Involvement in autonomic regulation and orofacial motor control
G. J. T. Horst (1991)
Cortically induced masticatory rhythm and its modification by tonic peripheral inputs in immolbilized cats.
Y. Nakamura (1976)
10.1002/CNE.901330406
Projections from the orbital gyrus in the cat. I. To brain stem structures
N. Mizuno (1968)
10.1016/0306-4522(92)90058-A
The lamellar organization of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata: Distribution of projection neurons
J. Deniau (1992)
10.1016/0165-0270(87)90126-9
In vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations for study of motor systems for mammalian respiration and locomotion
J. Smith (1987)
10.1152/JN.1982.48.1.126
Intracellular analysis of synaptic mechanisms controlling spontaneous and cortically induced rhythmical jaw movements in the guinea pig.
S. Chandler (1982)
10.1016/0006-8993(81)90394-2
Synaptic basis of orbital cortically induced rhythmical masticatory activity of trigeminal motoneurons in immobilized cats
Y. Kubo (1981)
10.1016/0006-8993(85)91229-6
The role of putative excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters in the initiation of locomotion in the lamprey spinal cord. I. The effects of excitatory amino acid antagonists
L. Brodin (1985)
10.1007/BF00247360
Modifications of masticatory behavior after trigeminal deafferentation in the rabbit
T. Inoue (2004)
10.1001/ARCHNEUR.1960.03840090124020
Handbook of Physiology.
F. Plum (1960)
10.1016/0921-8696(87)90139-3
Reorganization of corticobulbar projections corresponding to the development of feeding behavior from sucking to chewing in guinea pigs
A. Iriki (1987)
10.1016/0006-8993(89)91413-3
Evidence for excitatory amino acid transmission between mesencephalic nucleus of V afferents and jaw-closer motoneurons in the guinea pig
S. Chandler (1989)
10.1016/0306-4522(92)90448-B
Topographical organization of the nigrotectal projection in rat: Evidence for segregated channels
P. Redgrave (1992)
10.1016/0921-8696(94)92762-6
NMDA-induced rhythmical activities of the hypoglossal motoneuron in an in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rats
N. Katakura (1994)
10.1152/JN.1986.55.4.826
Role of corticobulbar projection neurons in cortically induced rhythmical masticatory jaw-opening movement in the guinea pig.
S. Nozaki (1986)
10.1139/Y81-104
Interactions between the jaw-opening reflex and mastication.
J. Lund (1981)
10.1159/000118861
Interaction of periodontal and jaw elevator spindle afferents in the cerebellum--sensory calibration.
A. Taylor (1984)
10.1016/0168-0102(94)00863-B
Studies of the respiratory center using isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparations
H. Onimaru (1995)
Neurobiological basis of human locomotion
島村 宗夫 (1991)
10.1016/0959-4388(94)90139-2
Spinal pattern generation
S. Rossignol (1994)
10.1152/JN.1992.67.6.1528
Control of trigeminal motoneurons from the cerebellar interpositus nucleus of the guinea pig.
T. Katayama (1992)
10.1152/JN.1989.62.1.273
Mastication in the rabbit: a description of movement and muscle activity.
G. Schwartz (1989)
10.1016/0006-8993(78)90738-2
Masticatory rhythm in intracellular potential of trigeminal motoneurons induced by stimulation of orbital cortex and amygdala in cats
Y. Nakamura (1978)
10.4449/AIB.V105I2.2265
Mechanisms of muscle spindle ex- citation.
G. Carli (1967)
10.1111/j.1471-4159.1984.tb09689.x
Glutamate: A Neurotransmitter in Mammalian Brain
F. Fonnum (1984)
10.1016/0300-9629(87)90268-4
Rhythmical jaw movements and lateral ponto-medullary reticular neurons in rats.
Y. Moriyama (1987)
10.1016/0003-9969(71)90108-7
The influence of interactive stimuli on rhythmical masticatory movements in rabbits.
J. Lund (1971)
10.1002/CNE.902150305
A light and electron microscopic study of premotor neurons for the trigeminal motor nucleus
N. Mizuno (1983)
10.1002/CNE.901640109
Localization of masticatory motoneurons in the cat and rat by means of retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase
N. Mizuno (1975)
10.1001/ARCHNEURPSYC.1933.02240140056002
Corticifugal pathways for mastication, lapping and other motor functions in the cat
H. Magoun (1933)
10.1007/BF00237931
Cerebellar afferents from the trigeminal sensory nuclei in the cat
R. Somana (2004)
10.1139/Y83-168
Phase-linked variations in the amplitude of the digastric nerve jaw-opening reflex response during fictive mastication in the rabbit.
J. Lund (1983)
10.1152/JN.1986.55.1.56
Modulation of transmission in rostral trigeminal sensory nuclei during chewing.
K. Olsson (1986)
10.1093/BRAIN/100.2.265
The organization of the bulbar fibre connections to the trigeminal, facial and hypoglossal motor nuclei. II. An autoradiographic tracing study in cat.
G. Holstege (1977)
10.1152/JN.1993.69.2.569
Coordination of cortically induced rhythmic jaw and tongue movements in the rabbit.
Z. Liu (1993)
10.1016/0006-8993(90)91620-V
Role of the basal ganglia in manifestation of rhythmical jaw movement in rats
S. Nakamura (1990)
10.1007/BF00231766
Integration in trigeminal premotor interneurones in the cat
K. Olsson (2004)
10.1016/0014-4886(78)90125-5
Intracellular recording in trigeminal motoneurons of the anesthetized guinea pig during rhythmic jaw movements
L. Goldberg (1978)
10.1016/0003-9969(82)90156-X
Neural pathway involved in the excitation of motoneurones to jaw-opening muscles by stimulation of the orbital cerebral cortex in the cat.
Y. Nakamura (1982)
10.1016/0306-4522(83)90263-4
Amino acid neurotransmitters and their pathways in the mammalian central nervous system
G. Fagg (1983)
10.1016/0006-8993(90)90622-I
An electrophysiological study of trigeminal commissural interneurons in the anaesthetized rabbit
R. Donga (1990)
10.1002/CNE.901170110
Fiber projections from the spinal trigeminal nucleus in the cat
M. Carpenter (1961)
10.1016/S0921-8696(87)80012-9
Cortically induced masticatory rhythm in masseter motoneurons after blocking inhibition by strychnine and tetanus toxin
S. Enomoto (1987)
10.1152/JN.1986.55.4.806
Localization of central rhythm generator involved in cortically induced rhythmical masticatory jaw-opening movement in the guinea pig.
S. Nozaki (1986)
10.1016/0006-8993(85)90328-2
N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), kainate and quisqualate receptors and the generation of fictive locomotion in the lamprey spinal cord
L. Brodin (1985)
10.1152/JN.1980.44.3.456
Food consistency and bite size as regulators of jaw movement during feeding in the cat.
A. Thexton (1980)
10.1016/0006-8993(81)90152-9
Trigeminocerebellar mossy fiber branching to granule cell layer patches in the rat cerebellum
D. C. Woolston (1981)
10.1007/BF00232203
Swallowing responses induced by microinjection of glutamate and glutamate agonists into the nucleus tractus solitarius of ketamine-anesthetized rats
J. Kessler (2004)
10.1152/JN.1984.52.6.1014
Analysis of rhythmical jaw movements produced by electrical stimulation of motor-sensory cortex of rabbits.
J. Lund (1984)
10.1152/JN.1994.71.6.2061
Neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying rhythmical discharge in trigeminal interneurons during fictive mastication.
T. Inoue (1994)
10.1016/0003-9969(85)90069-X
Peripheral influences on the central pattern-rhythm generator for tongue movements in the rat.
P. J. Jüch (1985)
10.1016/0168-0102(88)90028-4
Synaptic bases of cortically-induced rhythmical hypoglossal motoneuronal activity in the cat
Y. Sahara (1988)
10.1016/0361-9230(90)90209-I
Projections of two separate cortical areas for rhythmical jaw movements in the rat
G. Zhang (1990)
10.1016/0006-8993(89)91503-5
Angiotensin II-induced rhythmic jaw movements in the ketamine-anesthetized guinea pig
G. Gerstner (1989)
10.1016/0006-8993(90)90586-Z
Non-reciprocal facilitation of trigeminal motoneurons innervating jaw-closing and jaw-opening muscles induced by iontophoretic application of serotonin in the guinea pig
I. Kurasawa (1990)
10.2330/JORALBIOSCI1965.32.57
Two types of rhythmical jaw movements evoked by stimulation of the rat cortex.
K. Sasamoto (1990)
10.1113/jphysiol.1985.sp015883
Differential effects of carbon dioxide and pH on central chemoreceptors in the rat in vitro.
Y. Harada (1985)
10.1002/CNE.903470403
Two major types of premotoneurons in the feline trigeminal nucleus oralis as demonstrated by intracellular staining with horseradish peroxidase
A. Yoshida (1994)
10.1016/0006-8993(78)90518-8
Convergence of trigeminal and limb inputs onto cerebellar interpositus nuclear neurones in the cat
H. Richardson (1978)
10.1002/CNE.902340106
Direct cortical projections to the parabrachial nucleus in the cat
Y. Yasui (1985)
10.1016/0006-8993(84)90301-9
Differentiation of the neural pathways mediating cortically induced and dopaminergic activation of the central pattern generator (CPG) for rhythmical jaw movements in the anesthetized guinea pig
S. Chandler (1984)
10.1002/CNE.901100205
Some projections from the peri‐central cortex to the pons and lower brain stem in monkey and chimpanzee
H. Kuypers (1958)
10.1139/Y74-150
Localization in the cerebellar hemisphere of climbing-fiber responses evoked from the trigeminal nerve in the cat.
T. Miles (1974)
10.1113/jphysiol.1979.sp012641
Mossy and climbing fibre mediated responses evoked in the cerebellar cortex of the cat by trigeminal afferent stimulation.
F. Cody (1979)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.07-02-00463.1987
Brain-stem perturbations during cortically evoked rhythmical jaw movements: effects of activation of brain-stem loci on jaw muscle cycle characteristics
S. Chandler (1987)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.09-08-02887.1989
Induction of rhythmic jaw movements by stimulation of the mesencephalic reticular formation in the guinea pig
N. Hashimoto (1989)
10.1113/jphysiol.1971.sp009454
Evidence for central timing of rhythmical mastication
P. G. Dellow (1971)
10.1096/FASEBJ.2.7.2450802
Neural mechanisms generating locomotion studied in mammalian brain stem-spinal cord in vitro.
J. Smith (1988)
10.1152/JN.1986.55.2.301
Comparison of mandibular movement trajectories and associated patterns of oral muscle electromyographic activity during spontaneous and apomorphine-induced rhythmic jaw movements in the guinea pig.
R. W. Lambert (1986)
10.1016/0006-8993(90)90443-F
Monosynaptic connexions of single V interneurones to the contralateral V motor nucleus in anaesthetised rats
K. Appenteng (1990)
10.1093/BRAIN/83.1.161
Central cortical projections to motor and somato-sensory cell groups. An experimental study in the rhesus monkey.
H. Kuypers (1960)
10.1113/jphysiol.1975.sp010854
Climbing fibre inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells from trigeminal cutaneous afferents and the SI face area of the cerebral cortex in the cat.
T. Miles (1975)
10.1016/0168-0102(92)90072-K
Properties of rhythmically active reticular neurons around the trigeminal motor nucleus during fictive masticaton in the rat
Inoue Tomio (1992)
10.1007/978-3-642-68560-6_20
Cerebellar Output: Body Maps and Muscle Spindles
W. Thach (1982)
10.1016/0165-3806(88)90217-9
Feeding behavior in mammals: corticobulbar projection is reorganized during conversion from sucking to chewing.
A. Iriki (1988)
10.1016/0006-8993(85)90065-4
Single unit activity in lateral reticular nucleus during cortically evoked masticatory movements in rabbits
G. Marini (1985)
10.1113/jphysiol.1992.sp019296
Activation of the central pattern generators for locomotion by serotonin and excitatory amino acids in neonatal rat.
J. Cazalets (1992)
10.1016/0006-8993(91)90600-Z
Iontophoretic analysis of the pharmacologic mechanisms responsible for initiation and modulation of trigeminal motoneuronal discharge evoked by intra-oral afferent stimulation
N. Katakura (1991)
10.1152/JN.1990.63.2.356
An iontophoretic analysis of the pharmacologic mechanisms responsible for trigeminal motoneuronal discharge during masticatory-like activity in the guinea pig.
N. Katakura (1990)
10.1016/0304-3940(87)90624-0
Localization of respiratory rhythm-generating neurons in the medulla of brainstem-spinal cord preparations from newborn rats
H. Onimaru (1987)
10.1016/0304-3940(87)90072-3
N-Methyl-d,l-aspartate-induced locomotor activity in a spinal cord-indlimb muscles preparation of the newborn rat studied in vitro
N. Kudo (1987)
10.1139/Y81-107
Evidence for pattern generator control of the effects of spindle afferent input during rhythmical jaw movements.
L. Goldberg (1981)
10.1111/J.1748-1716.1981.TB06937.X
Activation of NMDA-receptors elicits "fictive locomotion" in lamprey spinal cord in vitro.
S. Grillner (1981)
10.1016/0003-9969(73)90178-7
Oral reflexes elicited by mechanical stimulation of palatal mucosa in the cat.
A. Thexton (1973)
10.1016/0006-8993(69)90313-8
Some properties of cortically-evoked swallowing and chewing in rabbits.
T. Sumi (1969)
10.1016/0006-8993(94)91489-3
Descending projections from the superior colliculus to the reticular formation around the motor trigeminal nucleus and the parvicellular reticular formation of the medulla oblongata in the rat
Y. Yasui (1994)
10.1016/0006-8993(74)90220-0
Short latency jaw movement produced by low intensity intracortical microstimulation of the precentral face area in monkeys.
R. Clark (1974)



This paper is referenced by
10.1002/cne.21586
Bulbospinal neurons of the rat rostromedial medulla are highly collateralized
Y. Lefler (2008)
Face Motor Cortex Neuroplasticity Associated with Alterations in the Oral Environment of the Adult Rat
L. Avivi-Arber (2009)
10.1002/cne.20604
Neurotransmitter phenotypes of intermediate zone reticular formation projections to the motor trigeminal and hypoglossal nuclei in the rat
J. Travers (2005)
10.1111/joor.12482
Oral tactile sensitivity and masticatory performance are impaired in stroke patients
M. Schimmel (2017)
10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.04.003
Paroxysmal bipedal activity during syncope related to carotid body tumor
G. Ambrosetto (2009)
10.7144/SGF.16.112
The electromyographic evaluation of head and neck coordinated movements during jaw movements
Chikako Tsurui (2010)
10.1016/S0003-9969(02)00028-6
Effects on mastication of reversible bilateral inactivation of the lateral pericentral cortex in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).
N. Narita (2002)
10.21007/ETD.CGHS.2010.0038
Characterizing Purkinje Cell Responses and Cerebellar Influence on Fluid Licking in the Mouse
J. L. Bryant (2010)
10.1016/j.jpor.2009.09.003
Cerebellar activity before teeth-clenching using magnetoencephalography.
T. Iida (2010)
10.1016/j.brs.2012.01.002
Unilateral deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus improves oromotor movements in Parkinson’s disease
P. Mazzone (2012)
10.1111/j.1601-183X.2006.00293.x
C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice vary in lick rate and ingestive microstructure
J. Boughter (2007)
10.1152/JN.2001.86.5.2583
Properties and interconnections of trigeminal interneurons of the lateral pontine reticular formation in the rat.
M. Bourque (2001)
10.1177/0022034512466265
Brain Activity and Human Unilateral Chewing
A. Quintero (2013)
10.1046/j.1460-9568.2003.02670.x
Effect of lidocaine and NMDA injections into the medial pontobulbar reticular formation on mastication evoked by cortical stimulation in anaesthetized rabbits
G. Scott (2003)
10.1016/j.jneumeth.2012.09.024
Modulation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia in rats with central pattern generator hardware
A. Nogaret (2013)
10.1111/j.1600-0722.2010.00784.x
Comparison of cerebral activity during teeth clenching and fist clenching: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.
T. Iida (2010)
10.1016/S0165-3806(03)00220-7
Oral-motor patterns of rhythmic trigeminal activity generated in fetal rat brainstem in vitro.
K. Ishihama (2003)
10.1152/AJPREGU.00191.2003
Neurochemical control and reconfiguration of the medullary network controlling different oromotor behaviors.
Hans-Rudolf Berthoud (2003)
10.1152/AJPREGU.2001.280.4.R1085
Muscimol infusions in the brain stem reticular formation reversibly block ingestion in the awake rat.
Z. Chen (2001)
10.1016/j.archoralbio.2013.02.009
Relationship between masticatory rhythm, body mass and mandibular morphology in primates.
Y. Nagamine (2013)
10.1152/jn.00515.2014
Involvement of histaminergic inputs in the jaw-closing reflex arc.
Chikako Gemba (2015)
10.1002/cne.23862
Excitatory and inhibitory innervation of the mouse orofacial motor nuclei: A stereological study
Macarena Faunes (2016)
10.1016/S0006-8993(02)03512-6
Effects of the inferior alveolar nerve stimulation on tongue muscle activity during mastication in freely behaving rabbits
Hirokazu Aeba (2002)
10.1152/JN.00600.2002
Rhythmic whisking by rat: retraction as well as protraction of the vibrissae is under active muscular control.
R. Berg (2003)
10.1016/S0006-8993(01)03392-3
Coordination between the masticatory and tongue muscles as seen with different foods in consistency and in reflex activities during natural chewing
Yohsuke Kakizaki (2002)
10.1038/nn.3693
More than a rhythm of life: breathing as a binder of orofacial sensation
D. Kleinfeld (2014)
10.1111/joor.12603
Bite or brain: Implication of sensorimotor regulation and neuroplasticity in oral rehabilitation procedures
A. Kumar (2018)
10.1037/xlm0000443
The Articulatory In-Out Effect Resists Oral Motor Interference
Berit Lindau (2018)
10.1111/J.1600-0501.2005.01171.X
Rehabilitation with dental prosthesis can increase cerebral regional blood volume.
I. Miyamoto (2005)
10.1179/crn.2010.016
Hemispheric Prevalence During Chewing In Normal Right-Handed and Left-Handed Subjects: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Preliminary Study
P. Bracco (2010)
10.1002/9781118991640.CH2
Mastication, Salivation and their Interactions during Eating
Guy H Carpenter (2017)
10.1080/0899022002000202239
Deficits of masticatory movements caused by lesions in the orofacial somatosensory cortex of the awake cat
Hisao Hiraba, Yayoi Yamaguchi, Hironori Satoh, Yoshinori (2000)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar