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Intranasal Stimulation Of Long-lasting Immunity Against Aerosol Ricin Challenge With Ricin Toxoid Vaccine Encapsulated In Polymeric Microspheres.

C. Yan, W. Rill, R. Malli, J. Hewetson, H. Naseem, R. Tammariello, M. Kende
Published 1996 · Medicine

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Intranasal (i.n.) immunization with ricin toxoid (RT) vaccine encapsulated in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres (RT-PLG-Ms) and poly (L-lactide) microspheres (RT-PLA-Ms) stimulated systemic and mucosal immune responses and protected mice from aerosolized ricin intoxication. High titers of anti-ricin IgG2a were stimulated in the serum of mice with one or two doses of RT-Ms 6 weeks postimmunization. However, in the lungs, no IgG2a or total IgG was elicited either with RT-Ms or with aqueous RT. At 6 weeks postimmunization, a single dose of the RT-Ms stimulated secretory IgA (sIgA) in the lungs of four of six mice, but a second immunizing dose did not enhance the stimulation. A single dose of aqueous RT vaccine failed to stimulate sIgA in the lungs, while, a second dose induced sIgA in 50% of the mice. One or two i.n. doses of RT-Ms protected most of the mice against lethal aerosol-delivered ricin toxin 6 weeks postimmunization. In contrast, protection was absent or marginal after one or two doses of aqueous RT vaccine. In both studies, the protection against lethal aerosol challenge was significantly better with one dose of RT-Ms than with two doses of aqueous vaccine, which may be attributed to the induction of sIgA in the lungs and the serum. Duration of the IgG2a and IgA in the serum, particularly that of IgG2a was much longer after the administration of RT-Ms than after the aqueous vaccine. The geometric mean IgG2a titers stimulated with two doses of RT-Ms remained high during 40 weeks postimmunization and were up to 25 times higher than the titers induced with aqueous RT vaccine. After 6 weeks, the IgG2a induced by two doses of aqueous vaccine was no longer detectable. Persistence of antibody response was predictive of efficacy. At 1 year postimmunization with two doses of RT-Ms, 100% of mice were protected against lethal ricin challenge. However, at the same time no protection was afforded by two doses of aqueous RT. The results of the present study consistently demonstrated the advantages of microencapsulated RT vaccine to stimulate effective and long-lasting protection by i.n. administration.
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