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A Critical Review Of The Influence Of Effluent Irrigation On The Fate Of Pesticides In Soil

K. Müller, G. Magesan, N. Bolan
Published 2007 · Environmental Science

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Abstract The impact of effluent irrigation on the transformation and mobility of organic contaminants is poorly understood. The objectives of this review paper are: (i) to discuss the fundamental processes influencing the transformation and transport of pesticides in soil; (ii) to present a critical analysis of the impact of effluent irrigation on the transformation and transport of pesticides in soils; (iii) to suggest research areas that need attention. Effluent irrigation affects the fate of pesticides through its direct effect on the transformation and transport of pesticides that are already present at the irrigation sites, and its indirect effect on soil properties that are important in controlling the transformation and transport of organic contaminants. It has often been noticed that the effluent-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) facilitates the movement of soil-borne pesticides by forming soluble pesticide complexes, and enhances their biodegradation by providing energy sources for the microorganisms that are involved in pesticide degradation. However, the results of field and laboratory experiments that examined the effect of effluent irrigation on the fate of pesticides are inconsistent; in some cases reduced mobility resulting from enhanced pesticide sorption has been observed, but enhanced pesticide mobility has also been reported. The inconsistency may be related to the inherent spatial variability of soil properties and/or the heterogeneity of effluent quality. For example, effluents vary in the nature and concentration of DOM that play a vital role in the degradation, sorption and transport behaviour of pesticides. Similarly, they vary in the concentrations of solvents and surfactants that have been shown to impact sorption and transport of organic contaminants. Field-based investigations on the impact of effluent irrigation on pesticide fate coupled with an accurate characterisation of the effluent are urgently required to assess the long-term risk associated with effluent irrigation in relation to pesticide transformation and transport.
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