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In Vitro Long-term Performance Study Of A Near-infrared Fluorescence Affinity Sensor For Glucose Monitoring.
Published 2004 · Chemistry, Medicine
The long-term in vitro performance of a fluorescence affinity sensor for transdermal blood glucose monitoring was investigated. Affinity binding of fluorescently labeled concanavalin A (ConA) was used in this application, as previously described by Ballerstadt and Schultz [Anal. Chem. 17 (2000) 4185-4192). In this paper, the fluorescence emission of the sensor was extended to the near infrared (670 nm) using Alexa647 as the fluorochrome conjugated to concanavalin A. Sensors were alternately exposed to glucose solutions having concentrations of 2.5 and 20 mM with a dwell time of 3 h. The optical output of the sensors was monitored over a 4-month period. The sensors showed an initial increase in fluorescence over the first 3-4 weeks before gradually decreasing, with an approximately linear drop of 25% per month. In order to understand the reasons for the decrease in fluorescence output, further experiments were conducted, including time-dependent membrane leakage tests, solubility tests of ConA, temperature-dependent activity tests of ConA, and fluorescence photo-bleaching tests. From these results, it became evident that the decrease in fluorescence was not due to denaturation of the ConA. The most likely cause was leakage of the fluorescently labeled ConA through the interface between the outer sealant and the membrane. This problem is considered to be solvable and future publications will address this issue. Extrapolation of the experimental data suggests that a leak-proof sensor would be remarkably stable with a fluorescence decrease of only 15% over a 1-year period.