Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Increasing Sex Difference In Bone Strength In Old Age: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES-REYKJAVIK).

G. Sigurdsson, T. Aspelund, M. Chang, B. Jónsdóttir, S. Sigurdsson, G. Eiriksdottir, A. Gudmundsson, T. Harris, V. Gudnason, T. Lang
Published 2006 · Medicine, Biology

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
INTRODUCTION It is important to identify possible pathological mechanisms that underlie the known sexual dimorphism in bone fragility in old age. In this cross-sectional population-based study, we use data from three different skeletal sites to examine sex differences in volumetric bone density, geometry and strength indices and determine whether sex differences in these bone strength measures continue to increase into very old age. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 1715 elderly individuals (807 men and 908 women) age 67-93 years, participants in a population-based study, the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES-REYKJAVIK) and not taking medications affecting bone metabolism, were studied. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was performed in the lumbar spine, hip and mid-femoral shaft to estimate volumetric trabecular, cortical and integral BMD, bone geometry and bone strength indices. Regression models were used to assess the effects of age and gender-adjustment for standing midlife height and current weight. RESULTS At age 67-69 years, men had 24.9-31.7% larger cross-sectional bone size at measured sites than women. At all bone sites, women had two- to fivefold diminution in net bone mass with age compared to men but had comparable increments in bone size (1.8-6.0% per 10 years). This was reflected in significantly worse (more than twofold) bone strength measures with age in women, including compressive strength indices at the spine, femoral neck and trochanter and bending strength indices at the femoral neck. CONCLUSION With the limitations of a cross-sectional study, our data support the hypothesis that sex differences in bone strength continue into old age. These sex differences appear to be due to greater net bone loss in women rather than due to greater bone gain in men.
This paper references
Effects of gender, anthropometric variables, and aging on the evolution of hip strength in men and women aged over 65.
S. Kaptoge (2003)
Clinical review 137: Sexual dimorphism in skeletal size, density, and strength.
E. Seeman (2001)
Impact of marrow fat on accuracy of quantitative CT.
C. Glüer (1989)
Quantitative computed tomography in assessment of osteoporosis.
H. Genant (1987)
Reference values for trabecular and cortical vertebral bone density in single and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography.
W. Kalender (1989)
Population‐Based Study of Age and Sex Differences in Bone Volumetric Density, Size, Geometry, and Structure at Different Skeletal Sites
B. Riggs (2004)
Hip and calcaneal bone loss increase with advancing age: Longitudinal results from the study of osteoporotic fractures
K. Ensrud (1995)
Sexual Dimorphism in Vertebral Fragility Is More the Result of Gender Differences in Age‐Related Bone Gain Than Bone Loss
Y. Duan (2001)
Relative lower extremity length in Mexican American and in American black and white youth.
R. Malina (1987)
Gender differences in body build and physiological functions in the adult population of Yucatan, Mexico.
A. Siniarska (2000)
Morphological and structural characteristics of the proximal femur in human and rat.
C. Bagi (1997)
Increase in length of leg relative to trunk in Japanese children and adults from 1957 to 1977: comparison with British and with Japanese Americans.
J. Tanner (1982)
Secular change in sitting height and lower limb height of children, youths, and young adults of Afro-black, European, and Japanese ancestry.
Meredith Hv (1978)
Cortical and Trabecular Bone Mineral Loss From the Spine and Hip in Long‐Duration Spaceflight
T. Lang (2004)
Bone loss and bone size after menopause.
H. Ahlborg (2003)
Femoral expansion in total hip arthroplasty.
R. Poss (1987)
Unrecognized Myocardial Infarction: Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, and the Prognostic Role of Angina Pectoris: The Reykjavik Study
E. Sigurdsson (1995)
Progressive loss of bone in the femoral neck in elderly people: longitudinal findings from the Dubbo osteoporosis epidemiology study
G. Jones (1994)
Relation between age, femoral neck cortical stability, and hip fracture risk
Paul M. Mayhew (2005)
Low bone mass and fast rate of bone loss at menopause: Equal risk factors for future fracture: A 15-year follow-up Study
B. Riis (1996)
Incidence and prevalence of recognised and unrecognised myocardial infarction in women. The Reykjavik Study.
L. S. Jónsdóttir (1998)

This paper is referenced by
Chapter 6 – Essentials of Bone Biology: Assessment of Bone Architecture
Thomas Lang (2010)
Lipid Levels: A Link Between Cardiovascular Disease and Osteoporosis?
P. J. Buizert (2009)
Sex Differences of Human Trabecular Bone Microstructure in Aging Are Site‐Dependent
F. Eckstein (2007)
Three-dimensional microstructure of the bone in a hamster model of senile osteoporosis.
H. Chen (2008)
Estrogens and Progestins
R. Turner (2008)
Epidemiology of Physical Activity and Fragility Fractures
Karl Stattin (2020)
Long-term changes in the density and structure of the human hip and spine after long-duration spaceflight
R. D. Carpenter (2010)
Effects of age and sex on the strength and cortical thickness of the femoral neck.
R. D. Carpenter (2011)
Bone disease in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: results from a screened population-based study.
Sigrun Thorsteinsdottir (2017)
Plasma phospholipid PUFAs are associated with greater muscle and knee extension strength but not with changes in muscle parameters in older adults.
I. Reinders (2015)
Vertebral Fracture Initiative Part I Overview of osteoporosis : Epidemiology and clinical management Authored by :
P. Szulc (2011)
Are bone turnover markers associated with volumetric bone density, size, and strength in older men and women? The AGES–Reykjavik study
E. Marques (2015)
Predictors of new vertebral endplate signal (Modic) changes in the general population
T. Jensen (2009)
Determinants of skeletal health in Afro -Caribbean men
Yahtyng Sheu (2008)
Effects of physical, virtual reality-based, and brain exercise on physical, cognition, and preference in older persons: a randomized controlled trial
Thwe Zar Chi Htut (2018)
CHAPTER 34 – Nonskeletal Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Fractures
J. Nieves (2008)
Finite Element Analysis of the Hip and Spine Based on Quantitative Computed Tomography
R. D. Carpenter (2013)
Influencia de la edad, sexo y dentición en índices radiomorfométricos mandibulares de una población adulta venezolana
Mónica Silu Piña-D’ Abreu (2018)
Structural patterns of the proximal femur in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women.
J. Carballido-Gamio (2013)
Drug delivery to osteoclast receptor targets
Rohit Kalvapalle (2009)
Gender Differences in Osteoporosis and Fractures
P. Cawthon (2011)
Medial-to-Lateral Ratio of Tibiofemoral Subchondral Bone Area is Adapted to Alignment and Mechanical Load
F. Eckstein (2008)
Proximal femoral density distribution and structure in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women
J. Carballido-Gamio (2013)
Bone Mineral Assessment of the Axial Skeleton: Technical Aspects
T. Lang (2010)
Advanced Structural Assessment of Bone Using CT and MRI
X. E. Guo (2010)
Cortical Bone Health in African Ancestry Men
Pallavi Jonnalagadda (2019)
Advanced quantitative methods in correlating sarcopenic muscle degeneration with lower extremity function biometrics and comorbidities
K. Edmunds (2018)
Muscle Cross‐Sectional Area and Structural Bone Strength Share Genetic and Environmental Effects in Older Women
T. Mikkola (2009)
Age- and gender-specific clinical characteristics of acute adult spine fractures in China
Y. Tian (2015)
Age-related changes in bone density, geometry and biomechanical properties of the proximal femur: CT-based 3D hip structure analysis in normal postmenopausal women.
M. Ito (2011)
Multimorbidity in general practice: Adverse health effects and innovative research strategies
S. Aarts (2011)
Osteoporosis in men and women
S. Bonnick (2006)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar