Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Development Of Nanocomposites For Bone Grafting

R. Murugan, S. Ramakrishna
Published 2005 · Materials Science

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Abstract This article reviews nanocomposites focusing on their impact and recent trends in the field of bone grafting. Although autogenous- and allogeneic-bone grafts have been used for a long time in bone therapies, there is still a donor shortage and infection risk. As an alternative, synthetic biomaterials have been developed and clinically used as bone grafts, but most of them differ substantially from natural bone either compositionally or structurally. It remains a great challenge to design an ideal bone graft that emulates nature’s own structure. Owing to the composition and structural similarity to natural bone, most of the current investigations involve the use of nanocomposites, particularly hydroxyapatite/collagen system, as promising bone grafts, but it is surprising that none of the reports review the rationale and design strategy of such nanocomposites in detail for the benefit of researchers. Accordingly, this article addresses the state-of-the-art of those nanocomposites and provides suggestions for future research and development. This review provides an overview of the nanocomposite strategy of bone, bone grafting, synthetic approaches to bone structure, development of nanocomposites from the conventional monolithic biomaterials, and recently developed processing conditions for making nanocomposites. The review is expected to be useful for readers to gain an in-sight on the state-of-the-art of nanocomposites as a new class of synthetic bone grafts.
This paper references
10.1002/1097-4636(200104)55:1<20::AID-JBM30>3.0.CO;2-F
Preparation and microstructure analysis of chitosan/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites.
I. Yamaguchi (2001)
10.1016/0142-9612(93)90026-X
Four calcium phosphate ceramics as bone substitutes for non-weight-bearing.
T. Kitsugi (1993)
10.1126/SCIENCE.277.5330.1242
Molecular manipulation of microstructures: biomaterials, ceramics, and semiconductors.
S. Stupp (1997)
10.1201/b14227
Biomaterials in Orthopedics
Michael J. Yaszemski (2003)
10.1023/A:1014250813564
Rapid sintering of hydroxyapatite by microwave processing
Y. Yang (2002)
10.1002/1097-4636(20000905)51:3<475::AID-JBM23>3.0.CO;2-9
Specific proteins mediate enhanced osteoblast adhesion on nanophase ceramics.
T. Webster (2000)
10.1097/00007632-199910150-00012
In vivo evaluation of coralline hydroxyapatite and direct current electrical stimulation in lumbar spinal fusion.
K. Bozic (1999)
10.1016/S8756-3282(96)00132-9
Tissue engineered bone-regeneration using degradable polymers: the formation of mineralized matrices.
C. Laurencin (1996)
10.1111/J.1151-2916.1998.TB02734.X
Hydroxyapatite Coating on a Collagen Membrane by a Biomimetic Method
S. Rhee (2005)
10.1038/2041050A0
Crystal Structure of Hydroxyapatite
M. Kay (1964)
10.1097/00003086-199603000-00008
Role of bone substitutes.
J. Hollinger (1996)
10.1023/A:1018586128257
Preparation and characterization of thermally stable nanohydroxyapatite
S. Zhang (1997)
10.1073/PNAS.87.6.2220
Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation.
E. Wang (1990)
10.1016/S0142-9612(02)00142-4
Biological evaluation of aerosol-gel-derived hydroxyapatite coatings with human mesenchymal stem cells.
M. Manso (2002)
10.1177/0883911504042643
Osteoblasts Adherence and Migration through Three-dimensional Porous Mineralized Collagen Based Composite: nHAC/PLA
Susan Liao (2004)
10.1021/CR000108X
Hydrogels for tissue engineering.
K. Lee (2001)
10.1023/A:1024083309982
Synthesis and biocompatibility of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/alginate composite
S. Zhang (2003)
10.1016/S8756-3282(02)00727-5
The potential of biomimesis in bone tissue engineering: lessons from the design and synthesis of invertebrate skeletons.
D. Green (2002)
10.1007/s007740050030
In vivo strength enhancement of hydroxyapatite combined with rhBMP-2
I. Ono (1998)
10.1056/NEJM199410063311401
Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation.
M. Brittberg (1994)
10.1016/J.MATLET.2004.06.044
In situ synthesis of bone-like apatite/collagen nano-composite at low temperature
Xiaoyan Lin (2004)
10.1097/01.BRS.0000083240.13332.F6
Lumbar Spinal Fusion With a Mineralized Collagen Matrix and rhBMP-2 in a Rabbit Model
S. Liao (2003)
Development of a novel biomaterial, hydroxyapatite/collagen (HAp/Col) composite for medical use.
S. Itoh (2005)
10.1034/J.1600-0501.2000.011004289.X
Bone augmentation by onlay implant using recombinant human BMP-2 and collagen on adult rat skull without periosteum.
M. Murata (2000)
10.1097/00004669-199701000-00009
Biomaterials Science: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine
B. Ratner (1996)
10.1002/JBM.A.10039
Biologically inspired synthesis of bone-like composite: self-assembled collagen fibers/hydroxyapatite nanocrystals.
A. Tampieri (2003)
Chemistry of collagen
G. N. Ramachandran (1967)
10.1097/00003086-198809000-00044
Ectopic bone induction on and in porous hydroxyapatite combined with collagen and bone morphogenetic protein.
K. Takaoka (1988)
10.1126/SCIENCE.276.5311.384
Supramolecular Materials: Self-Organized Nanostructures
Stupp (1997)
10.1016/S0927-7757(01)00616-1
Transport properties of porous membranes based on electrospun nanofibers
P. Gibson (2001)
10.1023/A:1010914621089
Preparation of a porous hydroxyapatite/collagen nanocomposite using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinkage agent
M. C. Chang (2001)
10.1038/nature01658
Osteoclast differentiation and activation
W. Boyle (2003)
10.1002/JAB.770020307
Bone graft and bone graft substitutes: a review of current technology and applications.
C. Damien (1991)
10.1007/BF00721823
Growth of hydroxyapatite on type 1 collagen
N. Mathers (1991)
10.1016/J.BIOMATERIALS.2003.10.016
Bioresorbable composite bone paste using polysaccharide based nano hydroxyapatite.
R. Murugan (2004)
A preliminary report on studies of basic calcium phosphate in bone replacement.
Ray Rd (1951)
10.1002/JAB.770010109
Mechanical properties of biodegradable polymers and composites proposed for internal fixation of bone.
A. U. Daniels (1990)
10.1016/S0030-5898(05)70035-3
Biologic Enhancement of Spinal Fusion
S. Boden (1998)
10.1007/s000110050646
Retinoic acid enhances the effect of collagen on bone union, following induced non-union defect in guinea pig ulna
J. Sela (2000)
10.2106/00004623-199704000-00004
Treatment of Acute Fractures with a Collagen-Calcium Phosphate Graft Material. A Randomized Clinical Trial*†
M. Chapman (1997)
10.1016/0142-9612(87)90107-4
Biological and biomechanical performance of biomaterials: Editors: P. Christel, A. Meunier and A.J.C. Lee Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 1986, pp 550, $124
J. Black (1987)
10.1016/S1067-2516(96)80061-5
Biological principles of bone graft healing.
T. J. Cypher (1996)
The adult spine : principles and practice
J. Frymoyer (1991)
10.1016/S0142-9612(01)00028-X
Biomimetic configurational arrays of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals on bio-organics.
S. Rhee (2001)
10.1111/J.1151-2916.2001.TB00817.X
Preparation of Hydroxyapatite Lathlike Particles Using High‐Speed Dispersing Equipment
George C. Koumoulidis (2004)
10.1021/CM030080G
Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Nano-Fibrils in Mineralized Collagen
W. Zhang (2003)
10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.240-242.407
Biodegradable Coralline Hydroxyapatite Composite-Gel Using Natural Alginate
R. Murugan (2002)
10.1002/JBM.820150315
In vivo surface activity of a hydroxyapatite alveolar bone substitute.
P. Ducheyne (1981)
10.1126/science.150.3698.893
Bone: Formation by Autoinduction
M. Urist (1965)
10.1201/9781420040036
Biomaterials : Principles and Applications
J. Park (2002)
10.1023/A:1011245213742
Direct Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite-Silk Fibroin Nano-Composite Sol via a Mechanochemical Route
R. Nemoto (2001)
Bones: Structure and Mechanics
J. Currey (2002)
10.1016/J.JCRYSGRO.2004.09.069
Aqueous mediated synthesis of bioresorbable nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite
R. Murugan (2005)
In vitro and in vivo studies with collagen/hydroxyapatite implants.
H. Marouf (1990)
Metals as Biomaterials
J. A. Helsen (1998)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-4652(199810)177:1<187::AID-JCP19>3.0.CO;2-A
Glycosaminoglycans bind granulocyte‐macrophage colony‐stimulating factor and modulate its mitogenic activity and signaling in human osteoblastic cells
D. Modrowski (1998)
10.1126/SCIENCE.289.5484.1501
The osteoblast: a sophisticated fibroblast under central surveillance.
P. Ducy (2000)
10.1115/1.3138695
Handbook of Bioengineering
R. Skalak (1986)
10.1016/S0142-9612(02)00229-6
Development of biomimetic nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(hexamethylene adipamide) composites.
X. Wang (2002)
10.1302/0301-620X.83B7.11271
The treatment of osteomyelitis with gentamicin-reconstituted bone xenograft-composite.
X. Li (2001)
Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen composite and bone morphogenetic protein-2 on lumbar intertransverse fusion in rabbits.
T. Sun (2004)
10.1016/S0142-9612(02)00516-1
Investigation of nanocomposites based on semi-interpenetrating network of [l-poly (ε-caprolactone)]/[net-poly (ε-caprolactone)] and hydroxyapatite nanocrystals☆
J. Hao (2003)
10.1016/S0142-9612(97)00069-0
Nano-apatite/polymer composites: mechanical and physicochemical characteristics.
Q. Liu (1997)
10.1016/S0167-2738(02)00593-3
Hydrothermal preparation of fibrous apatite and apatite sheet
K. Ioku (2002)
Biodegradation of a Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Collagen Composite by Peritoneal Monocyte-Macrophages
F. Cui (1996)
10.1016/S0142-9612(00)00305-7
Self-organization mechanism in a bone-like hydroxyapatite/collagen nanocomposite synthesized in vitro and its biological reaction in vivo.
M. Kikuchi (2001)
10.2106/00004623-198971060-00033
Orthopedic Biomaterials in Research and Practice.
E. Radin (1989)
Musculoskeletal Conditions in the United States
Allan Praemer (1992)
10.1002/JBM.820290704
Formation and properties of a synthetic bone composite: hydroxyapatite-collagen.
K. Tenhuisen (1995)
10.1097/00003086-198701000-00041
Bone regeneration under the influence of a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) beta tricalcium phosphate (TCP) composite in skull trephine defects in dogs.
M. Urist (1987)
10.1098/rsta.2004.1466
Bone repair in the twenty–first century: biology, chemistry or engineering?
K. Hing (2004)
10.1111/J.1151-2916.1998.TB02529.X
Novel Preparation Method of Hydroxyapatite Fibers
Y. Ota (2005)
10.2106/00004623-200302000-00007
Experimental Tibial Plateau Fractures Augmented with Calcium Phosphate Cement or Autologous Bone Graft
R. Welch (2003)
10.1023/A:1011407814795
Hydroxyapatite Nano Sol Prepared via A Mechanochemical Route
S. Nakamura (2001)
10.1097/00007632-199811010-00005
Use of a Collagen‐Hydroxyapatite Matrix in Spinal Fusion: A Rabbit Model
B. Tay (1998)
10.1016/S0030-5898(05)70113-9
Coralline bone graft substitutes.
E. Shors (1999)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-4636(19990315)44:4<407::AID-JBM6>3.0.CO;2-T
Three-dimensional nano-HAp/collagen matrix loading with osteogenic cells in organ culture.
C. Du (1999)
10.1016/S0142-9612(00)00075-2
Enhanced functions of osteoblasts on nanophase ceramics.
T. Webster (2000)
10.1007/BF02707351
Heat-deproteinated xenogeneic bone from slaughterhouse waste: Physico-chemical properties
R. Murugan (2003)
10.1016/J.COMPSCITECH.2003.09.002
Biomimetic synthesis of bone-like nanocomposites using the self-organization mechanism of hydroxyapatite and collagen
M. Kikuchi (2004)
Lumbar spine surgery : techniques and complications
A. White (1987)
10.1111/j.1469-185X.1961.tb01596.x
BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF COLLAGEN
R. Harkness (1961)
10.1073/PNAS.88.4.1217
Mouse hepatocytes migrate to liver parenchyma and function indefinitely after intrasplenic transplantation.
K. Ponder (1991)
10.1016/S0167-577X(02)01386-1
Photo-crosslinking polymerization to prepare polyanhydride/needle-like hydroxyapatite biodegradable nanocomposite for orthopedic application
Haoying Li (2003)
10.1054/IJOM.2001.0032
Mandibular reconstruction with a prefabricated vascularized bone graft using recombinant human osteogenic protein-1: an experimental study in miniature pigs. Part I: Prefabrication.
H. Terheyden (2001)
10.1016/S0928-4931(02)00318-1
Biologically inspired growth of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals inside self-assembled collagen fibers
N. Roveri (2003)
10.1016/S0020-1383(00)80022-4
Calcium orthophosphates in medicine: from ceramics to calcium phosphate cements.
M. Bohner (2000)
10.1016/S0142-9612(01)00031-X
Preparation and mechanical properties of nanocomposites of poly(D,L-lactide) with Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite nanocrystals.
X. Deng (2001)
10.1557/JMR.1998.0015
Processing and properties of hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials for use as hard tissue replacement implants
W. Suchanek (1998)
10.1016/B978-0-12-398358-9.00056-2
Chapter 62: TISSUE ENGINEERING FOR REGENERATION AND REPLACEMENT OF THE INTERVERTEBRAL DISC
Rp Lanza (2006)
10.2106/JBJS.C.01735
Fresh-frozen structural allografts in the foot and ankle.
M. Myerson (2005)
10.1034/J.1600-0501.2003.00921.X
Effect of rhBMP-2 on guided bone regeneration in humans.
R. Jung (2003)
10.1016/0142-9612(90)90080-A
Insolubilized properties of UV-irradiated CO3 apatite-collagen composites.
M. Okazaki (1990)
10.1089/TEN.2004.10.1148
Biomimetic collagen scaffolds for human bone cell growth and differentiation.
X. Yang (2004)
10.1002/JBMR.5650090205
Role of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans in mineralizing osteoblast‐like cells: Effects of hormonal manipulation
M. Slater (1994)
Histology : cell and tissue biology
L. Weiss (1983)
Treatment of nonunion by percutaneous injection of bone marrow and demineralized bone matrix. An experimental study in dogs.
J. J. Tiedeman (1991)
10.1097/00005131-199105020-00018
Multicenter Trial of Collagraft as Bone Graft Substitute
C. Cornell (1991)
10.3727/000000004783983774
Development of a Hydroxyapatite/Collagen Nanocomposite as a Medical Device
S. Itoh (2004)
10.1097/00003086-198106000-00037
Calcium phosphate ceramics as hard tissue prosthetics.
M. Jarcho (1981)
Improved bone tissue engineering materials
T. Webster (2003)
10.1016/S0142-9612(03)00115-7
Preparation of hydroxyapatite-gelatin nanocomposite.
M. C. Chang (2003)
10.1016/b978-0-12-098652-1.x5100-2
Principles of bone biology
J. Bilezikian (1996)
10.1016/S0901-5027(99)80144-1
Bone augmentation by recombinant human BMP-2 and collagen on adult rat parietal bone.
M. Murata (1999)
10.1201/b16369
Orthopaedic Biomaterials in Research and Practice
Kevin L. Ong (1988)
10.1111/J.1151-2916.2000.TB01656.X
Nucleation of Hydroxyapatite Crystal through Chemical Interaction with Collagen
S. Rhee (2004)
10.1021/JA028559H
A new approach to mineralization of biocompatible hydrogel scaffolds: an efficient process toward 3-dimensional bonelike composites.
J. Song (2003)
10.1016/S0167-577X(02)00805-4
Fluorinated bovine hydroxyapatite: preparation and characterization
R. Murugan (2002)
10.2514/6.1971-111
Mechanical properties of cancellous bone
J. Mcelhaney (1971)
10.1109/tbme.1985.325653
Biomaterials Science and Engineering
J. Park (1985)
A feasibility study evaluating rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge for maxillary sinus floor augmentation.
P. Boyne (1997)
10.1007/BF00665911
Synthesis of nanophase hydroxyapatite/collagen composite
R. Wang (1995)
10.1016/S0142-9612(02)00430-1
Effect of bone-like layer growth from culture medium on adherence of osteoblast-like cells.
T. Kizuki (2003)
10.1016/J.BIOMATERIALS.2003.09.089
Coupling of therapeutic molecules onto surface modified coralline hydroxyapatite.
R. Murugan (2004)
10.1016/0267-6605(92)90093-9
Collagen engineering for biomaterial use.
T. Miyata (1992)
10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.240-242.51
Microwave Synthesis of Bioresorbable Carbonated Hydroxyapatite Using Goniopora
R. Murugan (2002)
10.1016/S0266-3538(00)00241-4
Biomedical applications of polymer-composite materials: a review
Seeram Ramakrishna (2001)
10.1016/S0142-9612(99)00020-4
Osteoblast adhesion on nanophase ceramics.
T. Webster (1999)
10.1179/IMTR.1977.22.1.119
Metals in medicine and surgery
D. C. Mears (1977)
10.1634/stemcells.19-3-180
Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells: Nature, Biology, and Potential Applications
P. Bianco (2001)
10.1111/J.1151-2916.2001.TB00679.X
Synthesis of a Hydroxyapatite/Collagen/Chondroitin Sulfate Nanocomposite by a Novel Precipitation Method
S. Rhee (2004)
CONTROLLED RELEASE OF ANTIBIOTIC FROM SURFACE MODIFIED CORALLINE HYDROXYAPATITE
R. Murugan (2002)
10.3233/BME-1993-3304
Pressure sintering of apatite-collagen composite.
K. Hirota (1993)
10.1016/S0167-577X(02)00539-6
A simple route to hydroxyapatite nanofibers
Ying-kai Liu (2002)
10.1016/0142-9612(81)90050-8
Hydroxyapatite reinforced polyethylene--a mechanically compatible implant material for bone replacement.
W. Bonfield (1981)
10.1002/JBM.B.20035
Hierarchically biomimetic bone scaffold materials: nano-HA/collagen/PLA composite.
S. Liao (2004)
Evaluation of biomaterials
G. D. Winter (1980)
10.1016/S0142-9612(03)00303-X
Synthesis and characterization of needlelike apatitic nanocomposite with controlled aspect ratios.
Sz-Chian Liou (2003)
Handbook of Nanostructured Biomaterials and Their Applications in Nanobiotechnology
H. Nalwa (2006)
10.1016/S0378-5173(01)00691-3
Biomedical applications of collagen.
C. H. Lee (2001)
10.1038/361511A0
Materials with structural hierarchy
R. Lakes (1993)



This paper is referenced by
10.1109/EHB.2015.7391423
Impact of surface properties of blends based on quatemized polysulfones on modeling and interpretation the interactions with blood plasma: Quaternized polysulfones blends interactions with blood plasma
A. M. Dobos (2015)
10.1533/9781845697372.2.101
5 – Composite materials for bone repair
L. Grøndahl (2010)
10.1007/S00170-013-5277-2
Enhancing the biocompatibility of Ti6Al4V implants by laser surface microtexturing: an in vitro study
S. Mukherjee (2015)
10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.330-332.329
Development of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)-Collagen-Hydroxyapatite Nanohybrids for Tissue Grafting
X. M. Wang (2007)
10.1016/J.ACTBIO.2007.01.005
In vitro bioactivity and degradation of polycaprolactone composites containing silicate fillers.
G. Chouzouri (2007)
10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.622-623.910
Development of Dense Hydroxyapatite Nanoceramic by Pressureless Sintering
Sittiporn Punyanitya (2012)
10.1002/jbm.a.32302
Fabrication, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of poly(lactic acid glycolic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite composite microsphere-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering in rotating bioreactors.
Q. Lv (2009)
10.1007/978-981-15-4748-5_19
Wettability Analysis of Polyetheretherketone-Based Nanocomposites
M. Kumar (2020)
10.1080/0371750X.2019.1588170
Effect of Calcination on Microstructure Development and Properties of Hydroxyapatite Powders Extracted from Human and Bovine Bones
K. E. Öksüz (2019)
10.1115/1.4002149
Nanoclay Based Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications
A. Ambre (2010)
10.2147/IJN.S218248
Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites As Bone Implants: Nanostructure, Mechanical Strength And Biocompatibility
Kiruthika Lawton (2019)
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.03.030
Physical properties and cellular responses to crosslinkable poly(propylene fumarate)/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites.
Kee-Won Lee (2008)
10.1002/jbm.b.34691
Load-bearing biodegradable PCL-PGA-beta TCP scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.
A. Kumar (2020)
10.1002/MASY.200750710
Synthesis of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles in Collagen Medium
C. A. Bertran (2007)
10.1016/J.CAP.2007.10.076
Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite from natural bovine bone
A. Ruksudjarit (2008)
10.1016/j.actbio.2008.03.015
Beads of collagen-nanohydroxyapatite composites prepared by a biomimetic process and the effects of their surface texture on cellular behavior in MG63 osteoblast-like cells.
S. Tsai (2008)
Wpływ nanocząstek na właściwości fizykochemiczne powierzchni materiału
Elżbieta Sołtysiak (2010)
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.08.023
In vivo biocompatibility and osteogenesis of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)/nano-hydroxyapatite composite scaffold.
S. Fu (2012)
10.0001/(AJ).V4I1.214.G198
Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt apatite totally and half substituted by Microwave Irradiation. Antibacterial activity
Mohamed Abd El-Mottaleb (2015)
Silk fibroin/nanohydroxyapatite porous scaffolds for bone regeneration
Marta Raquel da Costa Ribeiro (2017)
POLYMER-CERAMIC NANOCOMPOSITES FOR BONE
S. Schickert (2014)
10.1007/s10971-020-05222-1
Customized hydroxyapatites for bone-tissue engineering and drug delivery applications: a review
Gurdyal Singh (2020)
10.1016/J.COMPSCITECH.2010.04.024
Solidification Behaviour Of PLLA/nHA Nanocomposites
C. Delabarde (2009)
10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.841.248
Button of Hydroxyapatite Composite for Craniotomy Flap Fixation: Fabrication and Mechanical Properties
Anirut Raksujarit (2020)
10.1533/9780857097231.2.301
Nanomaterials for cartilage tissue engineering
Eun Ji Chung (2013)
10.1016/j.mtla.2020.100870
Elliptical supra-cellular topographies regulate stem cells migratory pattern and osteogenic differentiation
Xiaoting Lin (2020)
10.1007/s10853-013-7170-7
Mesoporous hydroxyapatite by hard templating of silica and carbon foams for protein release
Janina Moeller-Siegert (2013)
10.1039/C3TB21441A
Stimulation of osteogenic protein expression for rat bone marrow stromal cells involved in the ERK signalling pathway by the ions released from Ca7Si2P2O16 bioceramics.
Xiaomeng Zhang (2014)
10.1016/B978-0-12-800547-7.00011-4
Additive Manufacturing for Bone Load Bearing Applications
M. Vlasea (2015)
10.1002/jbm.a.35731
Fabrication and in vivo evaluation of an osteoblast-conditioned nano-hydroxyapatite/gelatin composite scaffold for bone tissue regeneration.
Ali Samadikuchaksaraei (2016)
10.1007/978-981-15-0263-7_10
Chitosan-Based Systems in Tissue Engineering
M. Azeera (2019)
10.1177/0954411910396306
A study of the relationship between process conditions and mechanical strength of mineralized red algae in the preparation of a marine-derived bone void filler
P. J. Walsh (2011)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar