Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Energy Efficiency Breakdown Of Reverse Osmosis And Its Implications On Future Innovation Roadmap For Desalination

A. Shrivastava, Steven Rosenberg, Martin H. Peery
Published 2015 ·

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy Visualize in Litmaps
Share
Reduce the time it takes to create your bibliography by a factor of 10 by using the world’s favourite reference manager
Time to take this seriously.
Get Citationsy
Abstract In this paper, authors breakdown the specific energy consumption for seawater and brackish water desalination in an attempt to quantify the value of high permeability membranes on specific energy consumption for desalination. The trends from the analysis presented in this paper show that in both seawater and brackish desalination we are approaching thermodynamic limitations. The Gibbs free energy of mixing accounts for almost half of the specific energy consumption for seawater desalination and for brackish water desalination system losses and frictional losses account for major share of energy consumption. It is also shown that in both seawater and brackish water desalination, just high permeability membranes will not give substantial returns. Spacers, membranes, module designs and system are all areas that need to improve to make any significant enhancement in energy efficiency of reverse osmosis desalination.
This paper references
10.1021/ed027p584.3
Introduction to chemical engineering thermodynamics
J. M. Smith (1949)
10.1002/AIC.690200218
Thermodynamic properties of sea salt solutions
L. A. Bromley (1974)
Chemical and engineering thermodynamics
S. Sandler (1977)
10.5860/choice.35-0927
Diffusion: Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems
(1984)
10.1016/0011-9164(87)90107-X
Mass transfer and pressure loss in spiral wound modules
G. Schock (1987)
10.1016/0011-9164(91)85163-O
Characterization of composite membranes by their non-equilibrium thermodynamic transport parameters
D. J. Forgach (1991)
10.1016/0011-9164(92)80038-B
Numerical simulation and optimisation of spiral-wound modules
M.Ben Boudinar (1992)
10.1016/0376-7388(93)85113-B
Phenomenological theory of reverse osmosis in macroscopically homogeneous membranes and its specification for the capillary space-charge model
A. E. Yaroshchuk (1993)
10.1016/0376-7388(93)E0223-7
A generalized solution—diffusion model of the pervaporation process through composite membranes Part II. Concentration polarization, coupled diffusion and the influence of the porous support layer
A. Heintz (1994)
10.1016/0376-7388(93)E0222-6
A generalized solution—diffusion model of the pervaporation process through composite membranes Part I. Prediction of mixture solubilities in the dense active layer using the UNIQUAC model
A. Heintz (1994)
10.1016/0376-7388(94)00277-6
Solution-diffusion-imperfection model revised
A. Yaroshchuk (1995)
10.1016/0376-7388(95)00102-I
The solution-diffusion model: a review
J. G. Wijmans (1995)
10.1039/FT9959103389
Theory of concentration polarization in crossflow filtration
Lianfa Song (1995)
10.1016/0011-9164(96)00037-9
Salt and water permeability in reverse osmosis membranes
N. Voros (1996)
10.1016/S1383-5866(97)00065-8
Modelling reverse osmosis by irreversible thermodynamics
D. V. Gauwbergen (1998)
10.1002/AIC.690450502
Concentration polarization in cross-flow reverse osmosis
Lianfa Song (1999)
10.1016/S0011-9164(99)00136-8
Energy recovery for membrane desalination
C. Harris (1999)
10.1016/S0011-9164(01)00151-5
Reduction of the energy demand for seawater RO with the pressure exchange systems PES
P. Geisler (2001)
10.1016/S0011-9164(01)00278-8
Optimization of seawater RO systems design
M. Wilf (2001)
10.1016/S0376-7388(02)00307-1
Optimization of commercial net spacers in spiral wound membrane modules
F. Li (2002)
10.1021/IE010588Y
Simulation of the Flow around Spacer Filaments between Narrow Channel Walls. 1. Hydrodynamics
J. Schwinge (2002)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1066238
Chaotic Mixer for Microchannels
A. Stroock (2002)
10.1016/S0376-7388(01)00668-8
Rejection of single salts versus transmembrane volume flow in RO/NF: thermodynamic properties, model of constant coefficients, and its modification
A. Yaroshchuk (2002)
10.1016/S0011-9164(03)00377-1
Minimizing RO energy consumption under variable conditions of operation
T. Manth (2003)
10.2172/809106
Review of Water Resources and Desalination Technologies
J. E. Miller (2003)
10.1016/S0011-9164(03)00378-3
The work exchanger for reverse osmosis plants
Osamah M. Al-Hawaj (2003)
10.1016/J.DESAL.2004.06.036
Development of a fourth generation energy recovery device. A 'CTO's Notebook'
R. Stover (2004)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2004.02.014
The role of imperfections in the solute transfer in nanofiltration
A. Yaroshchuk (2004)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2003.09.015
Novel spacer design improves observed flux
J. Schwinge (2004)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2003.09.031
Spiral wound modules and spacers - Review and analysis
J. Schwinge (2004)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2004.06.048
A 2-D streamline upwind Petrov/Galerkin finite element model for concentration polarization in spiral wound reverse osmosis modules
Shengwei Ma (2004)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2004.05.026
Reformulation of the solution-diffusion theory of reverse osmosis
D. Paul (2004)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2003.11.015
Experimental validation of CFD mass transfer simulations in flat channels with non-woven net spacers
F. Li (2004)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2004.12.019
Novel spacers for mass transfer enhancement in membrane separations
F. Li (2005)
10.1021/IE048795W
Numerical Studies of the Impact of Spacer Geometry on Concentration Polarization in Spiral Wound Membrane Modules
Lianfa Song and (2005)
10.1016/J.DESAL.2005.05.017
Modeling concentration polarization in reverse osmosis processes
Suhan Kim (2005)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2006.07.022
Numerical study on permeate flux enhancement by spacers in a crossflow reverse osmosis channel
Shengwei Ma (2006)
ENERGY DEMANDS ON WATER RESOURCES
Report To Congress (2006)
10.1016/J.DESAL.2005.09.004
On maximum power of reverse osmosis separation processes
Mikhail Sorin (2006)
Emerging energy demands on water resources.
W. Einfeld (2007)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2006.12.032
Direct numerical simulation of flow in spacer-filled channels: Effect of spacer geometrical characteristics
C. P. Koutsou (2007)
10.1016/J.DESAL.2006.12.009
State-of-the-art of reverse osmosis desalination
C. Fritzmann (2007)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2008.05.060
Predicting the effect of membrane spacers on mass transfer
A. Shrivastava (2008)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2008.01.025
Modeling the effects of fouling on full-scale reverse osmosis processes
Eric M.V. Hoek (2008)
10.1016/J.ENCONMAN.2007.11.010
Energy efficiency in pumps
D. Kaya (2008)
10.1038/nature06599
Science and technology for water purification in the coming decades
M. A. Shannon (2008)
10.1111/J.1936-704X.2005.MP132001006.X
The Economics of Desalination
T. Younos (2009)
10.1016/J.CEJ.2008.10.030
Modeling the impacts of feed spacer geometry on reverse osmosis and nanofiltration processes
G. Guillen (2009)
Water Dependency of Energy Production and Power Generation Systems
T. Younos (2009)
10.1016/j.watres.2008.11.019
Biofouling of spiral-wound nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes: a feed spacer problem.
J.S. Vrouwenvelder (2009)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2009.05.013
PEG-coated reverse osmosis membranes: Desalination properties and fouling resistance
Alyson C. Sagle (2009)
10.1002/AIC.11958
Concentration polarization in a narrow reverse osmosis membrane channel
Lianfa Song (2009)
10.5004/DWT.2010.1756
Engineering Aspects of Reverse Osmosis Module Design
J. Johnson (2010)
10.1002/AIC.13779
On separation efficiency
E. Cussler (2010)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2010.04.035
Characterization of sodium chloride and water transport in crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogels
Hao Ju (2010)
10.1016/J.DESAL.2011.03.074
Energy analysis and efficiency assessment of reverse osmosis desalination process
C. Liu (2011)
10.1073/pnas.1116437108
Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture
D. Tilman (2011)
10.1126/science.1200488
The Future of Seawater Desalination: Energy, Technology, and the Environment
M. Elimelech (2011)
10.1016/J.ENERGY.2011.08.056
Second law analysis of reverse osmosis desalination plants: An alternative design using pressure retarded osmosis
Mostafa H. Sharqawy (2011)
10.1016/J.DESAL.2011.04.037
Reprint of: “An analytical model for spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane modules: Part II — Experimental validation”
S. Sundaramoorthy (2011)
10.1016/J.ENPOL.2011.09.039
Considering the energy, water and food nexus: Towards an integrated modelling approach
Morgan Bazilian (2011)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2010.12.036
A review of reverse osmosis membrane materials for desalinationDevelopment to date and future poten
K. P. Lee (2011)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2012.02.015
The potential of standard and modified feed spacers for biofouling control
P. Araujo (2012)
10.1080/19443994.2012.683001
Closed circuit desalination series no-4: high recovery low energy desalination of brackish water by a new single stage method without any loss of brine energy
A. Efraty (2012)
10.1021/es300060m
Thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of power generation from natural salinity gradients by pressure retarded osmosis.
Ngai Yin Yip (2012)
10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/045802
Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies: A Review of Existing Literature
J. Macknick (2012)
10.1016/J.DESAL.2011.09.050
Effect of feed spacer arrangement on flow dynamics through spacer filled membranes
A. Saeed (2012)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2012.05.016
Seawater desalination for agriculture by integrated forward and reverse osmosis: Improved product water quality for potentially less energy
D. Shaffer (2012)
10.1080/19443994.2012.683141
Closed circuit desalination series no-2: new affordable technology for sea water desalination of low energy and high flux using short modules without need of energy recovery
A. Efraty (2012)
10.1557/MRS.2012.39
The energy-water nexus: Water use trends in sustainable energy and opportunities for materials research and development
A. Ku (2012)
10.1038/nature11475
Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy future
S. Chu (2012)
10.1016/J.DESAL.2012.06.002
Full cost in desalination. A case study of the Segura River Basin
Enrique Lapuente (2012)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2013.03.063
Static mixing spacers for spiral wound modules
Ashkan Iranshahi (2013)
10.1080/19443994.2012.699341
Industrial and brackish water treatment with closed circuit reverse osmosis
R. Stover (2013)
10.1016/J.DESAL.2012.10.015
Technical review and evaluation of the economics of water desalination: Current and future challenges for better water supply sustainability
N. Ghaffour (2013)
10.1016/J.MEMSCI.2013.07.047
Solution-Diffusion–Electro-Migration model and its uses for analysis of nanofiltration, pressure-retarded osmosis and forward osmosis in multi-ionic solutions
A. Yaroshchuk (2013)
10.3390/e15062046
Generalized Least Energy of Separation for Desalination and Other Chemical Separation Processes
Karan H. Mistry (2013)
10.1021/es304224b
Thermodynamic analysis of osmotic energy recovery at a reverse osmosis desalination plant.
Benjamin J. Feinberg (2013)
10.2175/106143013X13778144233972
Modeling of concentration polarization in a reverse osmosis channel with parabolic crossflow.
C. Liu (2014)
10.1201/9781351069472
Activity Coefficients in Electrolyte Solutions
Kenneth S. Pitzer (2017)



This paper is referenced by
10.1002/ENTE.202100008
Energy Efficient Seawater Desalination: Strategies and Opportunities
P. Goh (2021)
10.5004/DWT.2021.26548
Energy, exergy, exergoeconomic, and environmental (4E) and carbon footprint analysis of coupling the various energy recovery devices with seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination
Saeid Kabiri (2021)
10.1016/J.DESAL.2021.114999
Enhanced exergy analysis of a full-scale brackish water reverse osmosis desalination plant
S. Fellaou (2021)
10.1007/978-3-030-51210-1_34
Pervaporation as an Alternative Desalination Method
W. Kaminski (2021)
10.1002/9783527824984.CH26
Graphene‐Based Membranes for Nanofiltration
Wanqin Jin (2021)
10.3390/membranes11020126
Partial Desalination of Saline Groundwater: Comparison of Nanofiltration, Reverse Osmosis and Membrane Capacitive Deionisation
Hanna Rosentreter (2021)
10.1039/d0ta09806j
Antimony alloying electrode for high-performance sodium removal: how to use a battery material not stable in aqueous media for saline water remediation
Stefanie Arnold (2021)
10.1016/J.CEP.2021.108382
Photothermal Sweeping Gas Membrane Distillation and Reverse Electrodialysis for light-to-heat-to-power conversion
A. Avci (2021)
10.3390/membranes11090673
Traditional Chinese Medicine Extract Properties Incorporated Energy Analysis for Membrane Concentration Processes
Wanyu Li (2021)
10.1016/j.memsci.2020.117889
Optimization of two-stage seawater reverse osmosis membrane processes with practical design aspects for improving energy efficiency
Jungbin Kim (2020)
10.3390/pr8080901
Seawater Desalination: A Review of Forward Osmosis Technique, Its Challenges, and Future Prospects
Aondohemba Aende (2020)
10.1016/j.desal.2020.114534
The techno-economic case for coupling advanced spacers to high-permeance RO membranes for desalination
K. Y. Toh (2020)
10.1016/j.memsci.2019.117607
Towards a low-energy seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant: A review and theoretical analysis for future directions
Kiho Park (2020)
10.1007/978-3-030-33978-4_5
Removal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Aquatic Environment by Membrane Technology
Xiuzhen Wei (2020)
10.1016/j.watres.2020.115906
Can seawater desalination be a win-win fix to our water cycle?
A. Pistocchi (2020)
10.1016/j.desal.2020.114625
Design, modelling and optimisation of a batch reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system using a free piston for brackish water treatment
Kiho Park (2020)
10.1002/wat2.1434
Solar desalination: Cases, synthesis, and challenges
William Delgado (2020)
10.22079/JMSR.2019.107844.1264
Seawater Desalination by Using Nanofiltration (NF) and Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis (BWRO) Membranes in Sequential Mode of Operation
C. Kaya (2020)
10.3390/membranes10100280
Membrane and Electrochemical Processes for Water Desalination: A Short Perspective and the Role of Nanotechnology
M. Son (2020)
10.1080/08940886.2020.1784700
X-ray Scattering Studies of Reverse Osmosis Materials
Q. Fu (2020)
10.1016/j.desal.2020.114659
Hybrid technologies: The future of energy efficient desalination – A review
Farah Ejaz Ahmed (2020)
10.1016/j.desal.2020.114569
Energy for desalination: A state-of-the-art review
Haya Nassrullah (2020)
10.1007/978-3-030-33978-4
Membranes for Environmental Applications
Zhien Zhang (2020)
10.22227/1997-0935.2020.5.688-700
A new technique to purify biologically treated wastewater by reverse osmosis: utilization of concentrate
A. Pervov (2020)
10.1016/J.APENERGY.2019.113652
A comprehensive review of energy consumption of seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants
Jungbin Kim (2019)
10.3390/W11061233
Characterization of the Agricultural Supply of Desalinated Seawater in Southeastern Spain
V. Martínez-Alvarez (2019)
10.22227/1997-0935.2019.9.1180-1195
Formation of organic deposits on low-preassure reverse osmotic membranes in treating water from surface sources
Yu Dan Su (2019)
10.1002/9781119300762.wsts0189
Water Desalination: Electrostatic and Electrochemical Separation Processes
S. Shanbhag (2019)
10.1134/S2517751619050068
Investigation of the Influence of Organics Contained in Natural Water on the Performance of Reverse Osmosis Membranes
A. Pervov (2019)
10.1021/ACSMACROLETT.9B00077
Molecular Structure of Aromatic Reverse Osmosis Polyamide Barrier Layers
Q. Fu (2019)
10.1016/J.DESAL.2019.02.008
Reverse osmosis desalination: A state-of-the-art review
M. Qasim (2019)
10.1016/J.DESAL.2019.07.004
How RO membrane permeability and other performance factors affect process cost and energy use: A review
Y. Okamoto (2019)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar