Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Political Activity And Firm Performance Within Nonmarket Research: A Review And International Comparative Assessment

Tazeeb Rajwani, Tahiru Azaaviele Liedong
Published 2015 · Economics

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
There is a widely held view that the performance of firms depends not only on the ability of managers to exploit economic markets but also on their ability to succeed in political markets. To test the value of political activism, recent scholarship has probed the impact of corporate political activity (CPA) on firm performance. However, mixed findings and the fragmented nature of the field raise more questions than answers as to the nature of this relationship. This systematic review examines scholarly articles for evidence of the impact of CPA on firm value. The findings suggest that CPA is more valuable in emerging countries and that relational CPA strategies are more common in emerging (versus developed) countries where social capital underlies political and economic exchange. We also document the paucity of research on informational CPA strategies and policy outcomes in the emerging country context. We consider the implications of these findings and others for local and multinational enterprises, and offer suggestions for further research.
This paper references
10.5465/AMR.2005.15281448
Corporate Citizenship: Toward an Extended Theoretical Conceptualization
D. Matten (2005)
10.1111/1467-8551.00375
Towards a Methodology for Developing Evidence-Informed Management Knowledge by Means of Systematic Review
D. Tranfield (2003)
10.1016/J.IBUSREV.2012.04.001
The antecedents of political capabilities: A study of ownership, cross-border activity and organization at legacy airlines in a deregulatory context
T. Lawton (2013)
10.5840/BEQ200515329
Can Corporations Be Citizens? Corporate Citizenship as a Metaphor for Business Participation in Society
Jeremy Moon (2005)
10.1111/J.1540-5907.2009.00407.X
Lobbying and Taxes
Brian K. Richter (2009)
10.1111/j.1467-6486.2009.00881.x
Performance Implications of Ties to the Government and Soes: A Political Embeddedness Perspective
Ilya Okhmatovskiy (2010)
Context Globalization & Competition
Yeh (2013)
10.1257/AER.100.5.1967
The Political Economy of the US Mortgage Default Crisis
A. Mian (2010)
10.2307/3556659
Misery Loves Companies: Rethinking Social Initiatives by Business
J. Margolis (2003)
10.1057/PALGRAVE.JIBS.8400137
The determinants of MNE subsidiaries' political strategies: evidence of institutional duality
A. Hillman (2005)
10.2139/ssrn.891426
Do Politically Connected Boards Affect Firm Value?
E. Goldman (2006)
Economic consequences of regulated changes in disclosure : the case of executive compensation
Kin Lo (2002)
10.1080/1364557032000119616
Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework
H. Arksey (2005)
10.2469/dig.v40.n2.36
Corporate Political Contributions and Stock Returns
S. Huffman (2010)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199901)20:1<67::AID-SMJ22>3.0.CO;2-T
Corporate political strategies and firm performance: indications of firm‐specific benefits from personal service in the U.S. government
A. Hillman (1999)
10.1257/000282806776157704
Politically Connected Firms
M. Faccio (2003)
10.2307/3857314
Ethics and the Political Activity of Business: Reviewing the Agenda
L. Weber (1997)
10.1111/j.1468-2370.2012.00337.x
Corporate Political Activity: A Literature Review and Research Agenda
T. Lawton (2013)
Academic earmarks and the returns to lobbying
J. M. De Figueiredo (2006)
10.1177/0149206310392233
Mixing Business With Politics: A Meta-Analysis of the Antecedents and Outcomes of Corporate Political Activity
S. Lux (2011)
10.5465/3069303
Pursuing Strategic Advantage Through Political Means: A Multivariate Approach
Douglas A. Schuler (2002)
10.2139/ssrn.631703
Do Lenders Favor Politically Connected Firms? Rent Provision in an Emerging Financial Market
Atif R. Mian (2004)
10.1111/J.1475-6803.2012.01322.X
THE IMPACT OF POLITICAL CONNECTIONS ON FIRMS’ OPERATING PERFORMANCE AND FINANCING DECISIONS
Narjess Boubakri (2012)
10.1186/1478-4505-6-7
Asking the right questions: Scoping studies in the commissioning of research on the organisation and delivery of health services
S. Anderson (2008)
10.2307/41165788
Integrated Strategy: Market and Nonmarket Components
D. Baron (1995)
10.1016/S0304-405X(02)00255-6
Cronyism and capital controls: evidence from Malaysia☆
S. Johnson (2003)
10.1016/J.JBANKFIN.2011.12.011
Political connection and cost of debt: Some Malaysian evidence
Mark A. Bliss (2012)
10.1111/J.0045-3609.2004.00194.X
A Framework for the Ethical Analysis of Corporate Political Activity
William D. Oberman (2004)
10.1111/J.1467-8381.2006.00234.X
Mixing Family Business with Politics in Thailand
M. Imai (2006)
10.1016/J.JCORPFIN.2008.08.003
Political connections of newly privatized firms
Narjess Boubakri (2008)
10.1002/SMJ.2006
In Search of El Dorado: The Elusive Financial Returns on Corporate Political Investments
M. Hadani (2013)
10.1109/EMR.2014.6823807
The hidden risks in emerging markets
Witold J. Henisz (2014)
10.1002/TIE.10090
Political risks as firm-specific (dis)advantages: evidence on transnational oil firms in Nigeria
J. G. Frynas (2003)
10.1177/000765039803700202
Do Corporate PACs Restrict Competition?
T. Dean (1998)
10.1177/1056492609347564
Challenges for Institutional Theory
R. Suddaby (2010)
10.1111/jacf.12084
Politically Connected CEOs, Corporate Governance, and the Post�?IPO Performance of China's Partially Privatized Firms
Joseph P. H. Fan (2014)
10.5465/AMR.1986.4284029
Corporate Political Strategy and Legislative Decision Making: A Review and Contingency Approach
G. D. Keim (1986)
10.5465/AMR.2003.9416341
Institutional Transitions and Strategic Choices
M. Peng (2003)
10.1016/J.JFINECO.2006.11.003
Political Connections and Preferential Access to Finance: Role of Campaign Contributions
S. Claessens (2007)
10.2139/SSRN.2324779
The Quality of Accounting Information
Willem Frederik de Koning (2013)
10.1016/j.jfineco.2006.03.008
Politically connected CEOs, corporate governance, and Post-IPO performance of China's newly partially privatized firms
Joseph P. H. Fan (2007)
10.5465/AMR.2008.31193554
Making Friends in Hostile Environments: Political Strategy in Regulated Industries
G. Holburn (2008)
10.1016/J.JWB.2010.07.008
Exploring national culture's consequences on international business lobbying
A. Barron (2011)
10.1111/J.1540-6261.2006.01000.X
Political Connections and Corporate Bailouts
M. Faccio (2005)
10.5860/choice.28-5186
Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance
W. Li (2009)
10.1177/0007650312446931
Democratizing Corporate Governance
A. Scherer (2011)
10.2139/ssrn.886901
Big Business Owners in Politics
Pramuan Bunkanwanicha (2007)
10.5465/1556395
The Future of Business Groups in Emerging Markets: Long Run Evidence from Chile
T. Khanna (1999)
10.1007/S10551-010-0478-1
Corporate Lobbying in Antidumping Cases: Looking into the Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset Act
Seung Hyun Lee (2010)
10.2307/2392573
The External Control of Organizations.
J. Benson (1978)
Institutional theory: Contributing to a theoretical research program
W. R. Scott (2005)
10.1186/1478-4505-6-1
Why national health research systems matter
S. Hanney (2008)
Business Ethics: Managing Corporate Citizenship and Sustainability in the Age of Globalization
A. Crane (2007)
10.2139/ssrn.281961
Cronyism and Capital Controls: Evidence from Malaysia
Simon Johnson (2001)
10.1016/J.JBUSRES.2003.08.006
Threats to international operations: dealing with political risk at the firm level
Bruce D. Keillor (2005)
10.1016/S0742-3322(00)17018-4
Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage
J. Barney (1991)
10.1016/J.JACCPUBPOL.2012.10.002
Political connections and privatization: Evidence from China
Guoqian Tu (2013)
10.2139/SSRN.1589688
Political Connections and the Cost of Equity Capital
Narjess Boubakri (2012)
10.2139/ssrn.720741
Political Relationships, Global Financing and Corporate Transparency: Evidence from Indonesia
Felix Oberholzer-Gee (2006)
Academic earmarks De Figueiredo and Silverman (2006) Figure 2 Impact of Context on Strategy Selection
McKay (2007)
10.2139/ssrn.965761
Are Antidumping Duties for Sale? Case-Level Evidence on the Grossman-Helpman Protection for Sale Model
C. L. Evans (2008)
10.1257/AER.91.4.1095
Estimating the Value of Political Connections
Raymond J. Fisman (2001)
10.1023/A:1005179819347
Determinants of Automobile PAC Contributions to House Incumbents: Own Versus Rival Effects
P. Hersch (2000)
10.1111/j.1468-036X.2010.00547.x
Ownership and the Value of Political Connections: Evidence from China
W. Wu (2012)
10.1177/000765039703600103
Research in Corporate Political Action
K. Getz (1997)
10.5465/AMP.2012.0041
Advancing Nonmarket Strategy Research: Institutional Perspectives in a Changing World
Jonathan Doh (2012)
10.2202/1469-3569.1034
Are PAC Contributions and Lobbying Linked? New Evidence from the 1995 Lobby Disclosure Act
M. Tripathi (2002)
10.1111/j.1540-5982.2006.00392.x
The Returns from Rent-Seeking: Campaign Contributions, Firm Subsidies and the Byrd Amendment
Benjamin H. Liebman (2004)
10.5465/AMR.2005.17293705
Corporate Political Strategies for Widely Salient Issues
Jean-Philippe Bonardi (2005)
10.1016/J.JFINECO.2013.06.002
The Value of Local Political Connections in a Low-Corruption Environment
M. Amore (2013)
10.1017/S1052150X00008101
Citizenship, Inc. Do We Really Want Businesses to Be Good Corporate Citizens?
Pierre-Yves Néron (2008)
10.5465/AMJ.2006.23478676
Nonmarket Strategy Performance: Evidence from U.S. Electric Utilities
Jean-Philippe Bonardi (2006)
10.1515/1469-3569.1391
Corporate Political Donations: Investment or Agency?
R. Aggarwal (2012)
10.1177/0149206304272187
Politicians on the Board of Directors: Do Connections Affect the Bottom Line?
A. Hillman (2005)
10.2202/1469-3569.1193
Corporate Lobbying Revisited
J. Kim (2008)
10.1177/0007650309338365
Doing Business in a Transitional Society
Y. Luo (2013)
10.1177/14761270030014005
The Strategic Organization of Political Risks and Opportunities
Witold J. Henisz (2003)
10.1016/J.JACCPUBPOL.2006.07.001
Public Policy, Political Connections, and Effective Tax Rates: Longitudinal Evidence from Malaysia
A. Adhikari (2006)
10.1027/1016-9040.11.3.244
Systematic Reviews in the Social Sciences: A Practical Guide
M. Petticrew (2005)
10.5465/256661
Corporate Political Strategy and Foreign Competition: The Case of the Steel Industry
Douglas A. Schuler (1996)
10.1007/S11127-011-9898-4
Corporate campaign contributions and abnormal stock returns after presidential elections
J. Huber (2013)
10.1007/BF02685863
Unions, PAC contributions, and the NAFTA vote
Jeffrey W. Steagall (1996)
10.2307/3003160
Theory of Economic Regulation
G. Stigler (1971)
10.5465/AMR.1991.4279002
STRATEGIC RESPONSES TO INSTITUTIONAL PROCESSES
C. Oliver (1991)
10.1016/J.IBUSREV.2013.05.006
Wholly owned foreign subsidiary relation-based strategies in volatile environments
G. White (2014)
Politicians 'on board': Do political
A. Carretta (2012)
10.1177/0149206310393503
The Interrelationships Among Informal Institutions, Formal Institutions, and Inward Foreign Direct Investment
R. M. Holmes (2012)
10.1111/j.1740-4762.2012.01032.x
Politicians ‘On Board’: Do Political Connections Affect Banking Activities in Italy?
A. Carretta (2011)
10.1016/j.jm.2004.06.003
Corporate Political Activity: A Review and Research Agenda
A. Hillman (2004)
10.1089/153312904322907702
Did Firms Profit from Soft Money
S. Ansolabehere (2004)
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604746.001.0001
Aligning for Advantage: Competitive Strategies for the Political and Social Arenas
T. Lawton (2014)
10.1111/j.1468-0475.2009.00482.x
Political Connectedness and Firm Performance: Evidence from Germany
A. Niessen (2010)
2002a) Roll call voting
Schuler (2002)
10.1016/J.JIMONFIN.2009.01.002
Political Connections and the Process of Going Public: Evidence from China
Bill Francis (2009)
Interest and Agency in Institutional Theory
P. Dimaggio (1988)
10.1016/0304-405x(76)90026-x
Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure
M. Jensen (1976)
10.1016/J.ECONLET.2010.11.016
The value of local political capital in transition China
P. Sun (2011)
10.5465/256507
Effects of Top Managers' Cabinet Appointments on Shareholders' Wealth
J. McGuire (1988)
10.1177/0007650304266277
Corporate Public Affairs: Commitment, Resources, and Structure
J. Griffin (2004)
10.2307/135384
The Economic Institutions of Capitalism: Firms, Markets, Relational Contracting
P. George (1987)
10.1016/J.JACCPUBPOL.2011.10.005
Political connections, tax benefits and firm performance: Evidence from China
W. Wu (2012)
10.1177/1532673X06296571
Interest Group Competition on Federal Agency Rules
A. McKay (2007)
10.1086/501091
The Jeffords Effect*
S. Jayachandran (2006)
10.1111/j.1467-9248.2005.00516.x
Structural Power and Public Policy: A Signaling Model of Business Lobbying in Democratic Capitalism
P. Bernhagen (2005)
10.5465/AMR.2005.16387895
The Attractiveness of Political Markets: Implications for Firm Strategy
Jean-Philippe Bonardi (2005)
10.1016/J.ORGDYN.2014.03.003
Why your company may need a chief external officer: Upgrading external affairs can help align strategy and improve competitive advantage
Jonathan Doh (2014)
10.5465/AMR.2008.27745499
Competitors' Resource-Oriented Strategies: Acting Upon Competitors' Resources Through Interventions in Factor Markets and Political Markets
L. Capron (2008)
10.1108/13598541211246512
The governance of supply networks: a systematic literature review
C. Pilbeam (2012)
10.1002/TIE.21468
Political patronage and firm performance: Further evidence from Malaysia
T. Hassan (2012)
10.5465/AMR.2007.26585837
Toward a Political Conception of Corporate Responsibility - Business and Society Seen from a Habermasian Perspective
A. Scherer (2007)
10.2307/2111510
A Dead Senator Tells No Lies: Seniority and the Distribution of Federal Benefits
B. Roberts (1990)
10.1111/1467-6486.00308
Raising Rivals' Costs Through Political Strategy: An Extension of Resource-based Theory
A. Mcwilliams (2002)
10.1186/1748-5908-5-69
Scoping studies: advancing the methodology
D. Levac (2010)
10.1016/J.IBUSREV.2013.02.005
Flying under the radar: Foreign firm visibility and the efficacy of political strategies in emerging economies
J. Puck (2013)
10.5465/AMR.1995.9503272003
International Variation in the Business-Government Interface: Institutional and Organizational Considerations
A. Hillman (1995)
10.5465/AMR.1994.9410122010
International-Business Political Behavior: New Theoretical Directions
J. Boddewyn (1994)
10.1016/S0742-3322(00)17011-1
The iron cage revisited institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields
Paul J. DiMaggio (1800)
10.1177/0007650302041001003
Determinants of Foreign Trade Mission Participation
Douglas A. Schuler (2002)
10.1111/J.1467-6486.2004.00452.X
Building a Strong Foothold in an Emerging Market: A Link between Resource Commitment and Environment Conditions
Y. Luo (2004)
10.1111/j.1471-1842.2009.00848.x
A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies.
Maria J. Grant (2009)
10.1177/0170840607088020
Developing Design Propositions through Research Synthesis
D. Denyer (2008)
10.1111/J.1460-8545.2004.00101.X
Networking and Innovation: A Systematic Review of the Evidence
L. Pittaway (2004)
10.1111/j.1467-629X.2010.00386.x
Corporate Political Strategies
I. Mathur (2011)
10.1007/BF00136521
Friends in high places: The wealth effects of JFK's assassination on the assets of LBJ's supporters
O. W. BrownJr. (1996)
10.5465/1556406
Managerial Ties and Firm Performance in a Transition Economy: The Nature of a Micro-Macro Link
M. Peng (2000)
10.1016/J.PACFIN.2012.08.003
Political connections, corporate governance and preferential bank loans
Y. Yeh (2013)
10.1111/J.1468-0343.2004.00129.X
Political Institutions and Policy Volatility
Witold J. Henisz (2004)
10.1007/S11293-008-9125-Y
Do Campaign Contributions and Lobbying Expenditures by Firms Create “Political” Capital?
P. Hersch (2008)
10.2139/ssrn.966379
The Quality of Accounting Information in Politically Connected Firms
P. Chaney (2009)
Corporate public affairs: Commitment
J. J. Griffin (2004)
10.5840/BEQ20081815
Business Citizenship as Metaphor and Reality
D. Wood (2008)
10.1177/0007650303260351
Determinants of Political Strategies in U.S. Multinationals
A. Hillman (2003)
10.1080/10627260701331770
The Strategic Management of Government Affairs in China: How Multinational Corporations in China Interact With the Chinese Government
Y. R. Chen (2007)
10.1057/JIBS.2009.94
The dynamic value of MNE political embeddedness: The case of the Chinese automobile industry
Pei Sun (2010)
10.5465/AMR.1999.2553256
Corporate Political Strategy Formulation: A Model of Approach, Participation, and Strategy Decisions
A. Hillman (1999)
10.1108/17506141111142834
The impact of managerial political connections and quality on government subsidies: Evidence from Chinese listed firms
J. Wu (2011)
10.2307/2586214
Disaggregating and Explaining Corporate Political Activity: Domestic and Foreign Corporations in National Politics
W. L. Hansen (2000)
10.1111/j.1468-2370.2011.00301.x
Flexible Working and Performance: A Systematic Review of the Evidence for a Business Case
Lilian M. de Menezes (2011)
10.1016/J.JBANKFIN.2005.05.008
Capital Structure and Political Patronage: The Case of Malaysia
D. Fraser (2005)
10.1177/014920638701300307
The Effect of CEO Succession on Stockholder Wealth in Large Firms Following the Death of the Predecessor
Dar L. Worrell (1987)
10.2139/SSRN.2251588
Corporate Dystopia The Ethics of Corporate Political Spending
M. Alzola (2013)
10.1093/JOPART/MUR005
Campaign Contributions, Access, and Government Contracting
C. Witko (2011)
10.1177/0007650303042002003
Foreign Subsidiaries' Government Affairs Activities
Timothy P. Blumentritt (2003)
10.5465/256617
Buffer or Bridge? Environmental and Organizational Determinants of Public Affairs Activities in American Firms
Martin B. Meznar (1995)
10.2307/2082716
The Determinants of Industry Political Activity, 1978–1986.
Kevin B. Grier (1994)
10.1002/PA.289
An ethical judgment framework for corporate political actions
Y. Gao (2008)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199801)19:1<25::AID-SMJ926>3.0.CO;2-C
Creating barriers for foreign competitors: a study of the impact of anti-dumping actions on the performance of U.S. firms
S. Marsh (1998)
10.1111/j.1468-0351.2010.00402.x
Political Connections and Trade Expansion
Yi Lu (2011)
Political connections and preferential access
S. Claessens (2008)
Deje que los clientes de mercados emergentes sean sus profesores
G. D'Andrea (2010)



This paper is referenced by
10.1002/GSJ.1185
Predictors of foreign corporate political activities in United States politics
L. Brown (2018)
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604746.001.0001
Aligning for Advantage: Competitive Strategies for the Political and Social Arenas
T. Lawton (2014)
10.1007/S10551-015-2776-0
Will Corporate Political Connection Influence the Environmental Information Disclosure Level? Based on the Panel Data of A-Shares from Listed Companies in Shanghai Stock Market
Z. Cheng (2017)
10.1108/mrr-12-2017-0439
The effect of political and business ties on firm performance: The mediating role of product innovation
Parinaz Sami (2019)
10.1177/0018726720908923
Aligning to disadvantage: how corporate political activity and strategic homophily create path dependence in the firm
Andrew Perchard (2020)
10.1016/J.IBUSREV.2017.07.006
Addressing the cross-boundary missing link between corporate political activities and firm competencies: The mediating role of institutional capital
Yu Gao (2018)
10.1108/S1571-038620190000026012
Corporate Political Activity and Financial Performance: A Corporate Social Responsibility Perspective
W. L. Lin (2019)
10.2307/j.ctvdf0g12.7
The Political Economy of Grand Corruption in Public Procurement in the Construction Sector of Hungary
Mihály Fazekas (2015)
10.1016/J.JWB.2016.07.011
From uncertainty to risk—A risk management framework for market entry
Jakob Muellner (2016)
10.1002/gsj.1357
Business group affiliation and foreign subsidiary performance
S. Castaldi (2019)
10.1111/IJMR.12137
Theory Assessment and Agenda Setting in Political CSR: A Critical Theory Perspective
A. Scherer (2017)
Political and Legal Consciousness of Young People in the Region (a Case Study of Jewish Autonomous Region)
E. Lutsenko (2016)
10.3390/su12052031
The Role of Political Collusion in Corporate Performance in the Korean Market
Daeheon Choi (2020)
10.1177/1059601114560064
Toward a View of Complementarity
Tahiru Azaaviele Liedong (2015)
10.1016/J.JBUSRES.2018.09.004
Obedience or escape: Examining the contingency influences of corruption on firm exports
G. Qi (2018)
10.5699/slaveasteurorev2.95.1.0076
Breaking the cycle? How (not) to use political finance regulations to counter public procurement corruption3
Mihály Fazekas (2016)
10.1007/S11575-018-0364-0
The Corporate Political Activity of MNCs: Taking Stock and Moving Forward
J. Puck (2018)
10.1007/s11575-018-0355-1
Feeling the Squeeze: Nonmarket Institutional Pressures and Firm Nonmarket Strategies
C. Voinea (2018)
10.1108/ijebr-11-2019-0627
Entrepreneurial strategy making in tourism organisations: a systematic review and future research agenda
Arthur Kearney (2020)
10.1016/J.FORPOL.2016.07.009
Media analysis in a case study of Šumava National Park: A permanent dispute among interest groups
Marcel Riedl (2016)
10.1108/CPOIB-02-2019-0011
Modern slavery and international business scholarship: the governance nexus
Brent Burmester (2019)
10.1111/BEER.12223
The interplay of corporate social responsibility and corporate political activity in emerging markets: The role of strategic flexibility in non‐market strategies
Rifat Kamasak (2019)
10.2307/J.CTVDF0G12.4
Government Favouritism in Europe
Alina Mungiu-Pippidi (2015)
10.4018/978-1-5225-6301-3.CH016
The Performance Implications of Corporate Political Ties: Government-Business Relations in Turkey
Nazlı Berberoğlu Yılmaz (2019)
10.1016/j.ibusrev.2020.101690
Foreign location decisions through an institutional lens: A systematic review and future research agenda
R. Donnelly (2020)
10.1177/1350508420928516
Datafied corporate political activity: Updating corporate advocacy for a digital era:
J. Murray (2020)
Does Corporate Political Activity Make Firms Less Risk Taking
Menghang Dong (2017)
10.1016/J.JWB.2015.03.002
Political strategies, entrepreneurial overconfidence and foreign direct investment in developing countries
S. Heidenreich (2015)
10.1007/978-3-658-26107-8_3
Dynamische Rahmenbedingungen als Herausforderung des strategischen Marketing Managements
L. Meissner (2019)
10.1007/S11575-019-00385-8
The Role of Non-market Strategies in Establishing Legitimacy: The Case of Service MNEs in Emerging Economies
P. Rodgers (2019)
Analysis of non-market strategies implemented by SMEs in an emergent economy: the case of Indonesia
Abdullah Sanusi (2016)
10.1007/978-3-030-35074-1_1
MNEs, Organizational Legitimacy, and the Need for Non-market Strategies
Vikrant Shirodkar (2020)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar