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Technologies For The Control Of Fat And Lean Deposition In Livestock.

M. Sillence
Published 2004 · Biology, Medicine

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When the ratio of lean to fat deposition is improved, so is feed conversion efficiency. Net benefits may include lower production costs, better product quality, less excretion of nitrogenous wastes into the environment, decreased grazing pressure on fragile landscapes, and reduced pressure on world feed supplies. However, finding a way to achieve these goals that is reliable, affordable, and acceptable to the majority of consumers has proved to be a major challenge. Since the European Union banned hormonal growth promoters (HGPs) 15 years ago, countries such as Australia and the United States have licensed new products for livestock production, including bovine growth hormone (GH), porcine and equine GH, and the beta-agonist ractopamine. There has also been considerable research into refining these products, as well as developing new technologies. Opportunities to improve beta-agonists include lessening their effects on meat toughness, reducing adverse effects on treated animals, and prolonging their duration of action. In the last regard, the combined use of a beta-agonist with GH, which upregulates beta-adrenoceptors, can produce an outstanding improvement in carcass composition and feed efficiency. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mediates many of the actions of GH, but has proved to be of more use as a growth reporter/selection marker in pigs, than as a viable treatment. However, a niche for this product could exist in the manipulation of neonatal growth, causing a life-long change in lean:fat ratio. Another significant advance in endocrinology is the discovery of hormones secreted by muscle and fat cells, that regulate feed intake, energy metabolism, and body composition. Leptin, adiponectin and myostatin were discovered through the study of genetically obese, or double-muscled animals. Through genetic manipulation, there is potential to exploit these findings in a range of livestock species, although the production of transgenic animals is still hampered by the poor level of control over gene expression, and faces an uphill battle over consumer acceptance. There are several alternatives to HGPs and transgenics, that are more likely to gain world-wide acceptance. Genetic selection can be enhanced by using markers for polymorphic genes that control fat and lean, such as thyroglobulin, or the callipyge gene. Feed additives of natural origin, such as betaine, chromium and conjugated linoleic acid, can improve the fat:lean ratio under specific circumstances. Additionally, 'production vaccines' have been developed, which alter the neuro-endocrine system by causing an auto-immune response. Thus, antibodies have been used to neutralise growth-limiting factors, prolong the half-life of anabolic hormones, or activate hormone receptors directly. Unfortunately, none of these technologies is sufficiently well advanced yet to rival the use of exogenous HGPs in terms of efficacy and reliability. Therefore, further research is needed to find ways to control fat and lean deposition with due consideration of industry needs, animal welfare and consumer requirements.
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