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Intranasal Immunization With Genetically Detoxified Diphtheria Toxin Induces T Cell Responses In Humans: Enhancement Of Th2 Responses And Toxin-neutralizing Antibodies By Formulation With Chitosan.

E. McNeela, I. Jabbal‐Gill, L. Illum, M. Pizza, R. Rappuoli, A. Podda, D. Lewis, K. Mills
Published 2004 · Medicine

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We previously reported that intranasal immunization with a non-toxic mutant cross-reacting material (CRM)197 of diphtheria toxin, formulated with chitosan, generated protective neutralizing antibodies in mice and guinea pigs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that intranasal delivery of a powder formulation of the CRM197-based vaccine was well tolerated and significantly boosted antibody responses in adult volunteers. Here we report that intranasal booster immunization with CRM197 alone or with chitosan induced systemic T cell responses. We addressed for the first time the induction of T cell subtypes following intranasal vaccination in humans. Intranasal vaccination with CRM197, like parenteral immunization with a conventional diphtheria toxoid vaccine, enhanced antigen-specific IFN-gamma production. However, formulation of the nasal diphtheria vaccine with chitosan significantly augmented Th2-type responses, which correlated with protective levels of toxin-neutralizing antibodies in intranasally boosted individuals. The results suggest that vaccines capable of inducing strong Th2-type responses, such as CRM197 formulated with chitosan, have potential for the development of a protective mucosal vaccine against diphtheria in humans. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that mucosal subunit vaccines with appropriate delivery systems have considerable potential for booster immunization of adults.
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