Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Ecological Association Of Water Hardness With Prevalence Of Childhood Atopic Dermatitis In A Japanese Urban Area.

Y. Miyake, T. Yokoyama, A. Yura, M. Iki, Tadahiko Shimizu
Published 2004 · Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy Visualize in Litmaps
Share
Reduce the time it takes to create your bibliography by a factor of 10 by using the world’s favourite reference manager
Time to take this seriously.
Get Citationsy
The prevalence of symptoms of atopic eczema among Japanese children aged 6-7 years is the second highest in 56 countries. Reasons for such a high prevalence are unknown. This ecological study examined whether the positive association of water hardness with atopic dermatitis among British primary-school children also exists in Japan. Study subjects were 458,284 of 489,725 children, aged 6-12 years, in 1,016 public elementary schools in Osaka Prefecture with 44 municipalities. The study used data on water hardness and chlorine content of the water supply; prevalence of atopic dermatitis diagnosed by physicians and episodes of wheezing reported by the parents; and potential confounding factors by socioeconomic and health care status per municipality. The prevalence of atopic eczema was significantly higher in the highest water hardness category than that in the lowest (24.4% [n=2,288/9,362] and 22.9% [n=77,408/33,8267], respectively; adjusted odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.18; P<0.0001 for trend). A significant and slightly J-shaped relationship between chlorine content of the water supply and prevalence of atopic dermatitis was observed after adjustment for confounding factors. There were no apparent associations of water hardness and chlorine content of the water supply with prevalence of wheeze. Water hardness may increase the risk of atopic dermatitis among elementary-school children in Japan, as well as in the United Kingdom.
This paper references



This paper is referenced by
10.1007/S42452-020-04125-8
Physicochemical quality monitoring of groundwater for drinking purposes in rural Ujjain, Central India: findings of a 2-year longitudinal study
S. Singh (2021)
10.1371/journal.pone.0252462
The association between water hardness and xerosis—Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study
M. Henning (2021)
10.1016/J.CLINDERMATOL.2021.05.003
Nutrition and Water
Kathryn Bentivegna (2021)
10.1007/s13201-020-1147-x
Eco-hydrology and the effects on the national economy: case of the eastern region of Abakaliki Anticlinorium, Southeastern Nigeria
S. N. Ukpai (2020)
10.1111/cea.13797
The effect of water hardness on atopic eczema, skin barrier function: A systematic review, meta‐analysis
Z. Jabbar-Lopez (2020)
10.1111/pai.13335
Global differences in atopic dermatitis
N. Suaini (2020)
10.1016/b978-0-08-103017-2.00014-3
Efficient phosphate recovery from fertilizer wastewater stream through simultaneous Ca and F ions removal
H. Winoto (2020)
10.1016/j.jaip.2019.12.005
Halting the March: Primary Prevention of Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergies.
F. Bawany (2020)
10.1111/bjd.18597
Longitudinal analysis of the effect of water hardness on atopic eczema: evidence for gene–environment interaction
Z. Jabbar-Lopez (2019)
10.1097/DER.0000000000000459
Bathing Additives for Atopic Dermatitis-A Systematic Review.
M. Maarouf (2019)
10.18821/0016-9900-2017-96-3-235-240
THE IMPACT OF THE DRINKING WATER HARDNESS ON THE MORBIDITY RATE OF THE POPULATION OF THE CITY OF OREL
N. V. Kanatnikova (2019)
10.1097/DER.0000000000000459
Bathing Additives for Atopic Dermatitis - A Systematic Review.
M. Maarouf (2019)
10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027168
Protocol for an outcome assessor-blinded pilot randomised controlled trial of an ion-exchange water softener for the prevention of atopic eczema in neonates, with an embedded mechanistic study: the Softened Water for Eczema Prevention (SOFTER) trial
Z. Jabbar-Lopez (2019)
10.1016/J.ECOLIND.2019.01.034
Development of new integrated water quality index (IWQI) model to evaluate the drinking suitability of water
S. Mukate (2019)
Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis: similarities and differences
E. N. Dhonncha (2019)
10.1111/all.14017
Aggravation of asthmatic inflammation by chlorine exposure via innate lymphoid cells and CD11cintermediate macrophages
Ji-Su Shim (2019)
10.1111/bjd.16822
Effects of environmental skin stressors on filaggrin degradation products: importance for eczema
M. Simon (2018)
10.1111/ggi.13200
Improved effect of ultra‐pure soft water on skin water content in older adults
Kenshiro Matsuda (2018)
10.1016/j.jid.2017.08.037
The Effect of Water Hardness on Surfactant Deposition after Washing and Subsequent Skin Irritation in Atopic Dermatitis Patients and Healthy Control Subjects.
S. Danby (2018)
10.3389/fimmu.2018.02727
Leveraging Multilayered “Omics” Data for Atopic Dermatitis: A Road Map to Precision Medicine
D. Ghosh (2018)
Development of microfluidic paper based analytical devices (µPADS) for the detection of calcium and magnesium ions
Buddhika S Liyana Pathirannahel (2018)
ON CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HARDNESS IN WATER Kamlesh
M. K. Kidwai (2018)
Wysoka twardość wody przeznaczonej do spożycia a jej bezpieczeństwo dla zdrowia w świetle współczesnych badań
A. Stankiewicz (2018)
10.1080/1744666X.2016.1212660
Environmental risk factors and their role in the management of atopic dermatitis
R. Kantor (2017)
10.1016/j.jaci.2016.11.021
Prevalence of atopic dermatitis in infants by domestic water hardness and season of birth: Cohort study
K. A. Engebretsen (2017)
HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION OF SHALLOW GROUND WATER IN DIRECT CONTACT WITH FAILED SEPTIC TANKS
AHZAD (2017)
Relatório de Estágio Profissionalizante
Cristina Costa (2016)
10.1016/j.jaci.2016.03.031
Association between domestic water hardness, chlorine, and atopic dermatitis risk in early life: A population-based cross-sectional study.
M. Perkin (2016)
10.1007/978-3-319-22243-1_3
Pathophysiology of Atopic Dermatitis/Eczema
J. Ring (2016)
10.3310/PGFAR04070
Scoping systematic review of treatments for eczema
H. Nankervis (2016)
10.1007/s40257-016-0240-2
Bathing and Associated Treatments in Atopic Dermatitis
J. Gittler (2016)
10.2147/CCID.S111729
Hard water softening effect of a baby cleanser
R. Walters (2016)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar