Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Treatment Of Blepharospasm With Botulinum Toxin.

R. H. Kennedy, G. Bartley, J. Flanagan, R. R. Waller
Published 1989 · Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Many therapeutic modalities, including medications, excision of the muscles used in closure of the eyelids (myectomy), and selective extirpation of branches of the facial nerve (neurectomy), have been used for the management of blepharospasm. Because of limited effectiveness and undesirable side effects, none of these treatments has been completely satisfactory. Recent reports about injection of botulinum toxin indicate that it is safe and effective for most patients. Relief from blepharospasm, however, is usually transient, and repeated injections are usually necessary. The current availability of effective therapy for blepharospasm emphasizes the importance of prompt diagnosis and referral of affected patients to physicians knowledgeable in the use of botulinum toxin and other therapeutic approaches.
This paper references
Botulinum toxin in the management of blepharospasm.
J. Dutton (1986)
Treatment of blepharospasm with botulinum toxin.
E. A. Tsoy (1985)
Botulinum toxin therapy for strabismus and blepharospasm: Bascom Palmer Eye Institute experience.
J. Flynn (1986)
Myectomy for essential blepharospasm.
T. Jones (1985)
Negative antibody response to long-term treatment of facial spasm with botulinum toxin.
R. Gonnering (1988)
Biofeedback for ophthalmologic disorders.
M. Rotberg (1983)
Botulinum toxin for the treatment of essential blepharospasm.
J. Shore (1986)
Treatment of Torticollis with Injections of Botulinum Toxin
P. Greene (1987)
Botulinum A toxin injection as a treatment for blepharospasm.
A. Scott (1985)
Treatment of blepharospasm with botulinum toxin. A preliminary report.
B. Frueh (1984)
Visual electrical evoked potentials
L. Dorfman (1987)
Blepharospasm surgery. An anatomical approach.
W. Gillum (1981)
Blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia syndrome (Brueghel's syndrome). A variant of adult-onset torsion dystonia?
C. Marsden (1976)
Treatment of facial spasm with botulinum toxin. An interim report.
B. Frueh (1986)
Use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of one hundred patients with facial dyskinesias.
J. Mauriello (1987)
Botulinum toxin injection into extraocular muscles as an alternative to strabismus surgery.
A. B. Scott (1980)
Treatment of essential blepharospasm. I. Comparison of facial nerve avulsion and eyebrow-eyelid muscle stripping procedure.
C. McCord (1984)
The use of botulinum toxin in the medical management of benign essential blepharospasm.
K. I. Perman (1986)
Management of Blepharospasm
R. H. Kennedy (1985)
Effectiveness of botulinum toxin therapy for essential blepharospasm.
P. Engstrom (1987)
Blinking and blepharospasm. Mechanism, diagnosis, and management.
J. Jankovic (1982)
Botulinum toxin: mechanism of presynaptic blockade.
I. Kao (1976)
Meige's syndrome. Dyskinesia of the eyelids and facial muscles.
Paulson Gw (1972)
Botulinum injection therapy for blepharospasm: a review and report of 75 patients.
D. Cohen (1986)

This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar