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Lipopolysaccharides Of Gram-Negative Bacteria

O. Lüderitz, M. Freudenberg, C. Galanos, V. Lehmann, E. Rietschel, D. H. Shaw
Published 1982 · Biology

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Publisher Summary Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) form a large, unique class of macromolecules representing a characteristic attribute of gram-negative bacteria. Associated with proteins, they are located in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of the bacterial cell. In this exposed position on the cell surface, lipopolysaccharides are involved in the interaction of the cell with the environment. Thus, contact of the bacterium with the immune system leads to the stimulation of specific antibodies directed predominantly against determinant structures of the lipopolysaccharide. Hence, lipopolysaccharides represent the main surface antigens of gram-negative bacteria. The chapter describes general aspects of the O-specific chains and the core, and principles of their biosynthesis. The O-specific chains of lipopolysaccharides are made up of repeating units of identical oligosaccharides. These units usually contain different constituents, thus the O chain represents a heteropolysaccharide. The chapter discusses the structure of Salmonella lipopolysaccharides (lipid A), and its biosynthesis. Lipid A's of other gram-negative bacteria, recently investigated is also described. The smallest lipid A substructure exhibits antigenicity, mitogenicity, lethal toxicity, (weak) pyrogenicity, and (weak) complement reactivity, but strong Limulus lysate activity. Some aspects of the biological properties of lipopolysaccharides are also discussed. In Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, cell wall components other than lipopolysaccharide may also be endowed with endotoxin-like activities. Like lipopolysaccharide, these constituents are amphipathic in nature (probably with the exception of murein, though it may contain lipoprotein). Thus, the studies indicate that at least some lipid A activities are not restricted to one specific structure, but are rather connected with general physicochemical properties.
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