Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Cell Death: The Significance Of Apoptosis.

A. Wyllie, J. Kerr, A. R. Currie
Published 1980 · Biology, Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Publisher Summary The classification of cell death can be based on morphological or biochemical criteria or on the circumstances of its occurrence. Currently, irreversible structural alteration provides the only unequivocal evidence of death; biochemical indicators of cell death that are universally applicable have to be precisely defined and studies of cell function or of reproductive capacity do not necessarily differentiate between death and dormant states from which recovery may be possible. It has also proved feasible to categorize most if not all dying cells into one or the other of two discrete and distinctive patterns of morphological change, which have, generally, been found to occur under disparate but individually characteristic circumstances. One of these patterns is the swelling proceeding to rupture of plasma and organelle membranes and dissolution of organized structure—termed “coagulative necrosis.” It results from injury by agents, such as toxins and ischemia, affects cells in groups rather than singly, and evokes exudative inflammation when it develops in vivo. The other morphological pattern is characterized by condensation of the cell with maintenance of organelle integrity and the formation of surface protuberances that separate as membrane-bounded globules; in tissues, these are phagocytosed and digested by resident cells, there being no associated inflammation.
This paper references
10.1002/EJI.1830030108
Morphological observations on the contact‐induced lysis of target cells
H. Koren (1973)
Cell death in ovarian chambers of Drosophila melanogaster.
F. Giorgi (1976)
10.1111/j.1365-2184.1979.tb00170.x
DIFFERENTIAL LETHAL EFFECTS OF BOTH CYTOSINE ARABINOSIDE AND HYDROXYUREA ON JEJUNAL CRYPT CELLS AND TESTOSTERONE‐STIMULATED ACCESSORY SEX GLANDS
M. Alison (1979)
10.1353/pbm.1971.0002
Glucocorticoid Inhibition of Glucose Uptake by Peripheral Tissues: Old and New Evidence, Molecular Mechanisms, and Physiological Significance
A. Munck (1971)
Cytolysis induced by human lymphotoxin.
S. W. Russell (1972)
Ribosome crystals in necrotizing cells from the posterior necrotic zone of the developing chick limb.
N. Mottet (1972)
10.1111/j.1365-2184.1968.tb00318.x
CELL LOSS FROM EXPERIMENTAL TUMOURS
G. Steel (1968)
10.1095/BIOLREPROD17.2.162
Changes in small blood vessels during cyclical luteal regression in sheep.
J. O'Shea (1977)
10.1016/0002-9343(60)90011-5
The liver cell. Some new approaches to its study.
A. Novikoff (1960)
Early biochemical alterations induced by lymphotoxin in target cells.
W. Rosenau (1973)
Calcium dependence of ionophore A23187-induced lymphocyte cytotoxicity.
N. Kaiser (1978)
10.1016/0003-9969(72)90088-X
Ultrastructural injury following x-irradiation of rat parotid gland acinar cells.
N. Pratt (1972)
10.1016/S0012-1606(74)80005-9
Cell death and autonomous gene action in lethals affecting imaginal discs in Drosophila melanogaster.
C. Murphy (1974)
10.1530/JRF.0.0540183
Ultrastructural changes in the theca interna during follicular atresia in sheep.
J. O'Shea (1978)
10.1083/JCB.18.2.251
DEMONSTRATION OF ACID PHOSPHATASE-CONTAINING GRANULES AND CYTOPLASMIC BODIES IN THE EPITHELIUM OF FOETAL RAT DUODENUM DURING CERTAIN STAGES OF DIFFERENTIATION
O. Behnke (1963)
10.1016/S0006-3495(69)86407-6
Time lapse cinemicrographic studies of x-irradiated HeLa S3 cells. I. Cell progression and cell disintegration.
C. Hurwitz (1969)
10.2307/3571764
CHANGES IN ULTRASTRUCTURE OF DUODENAL CRYPTS IN X-IRRADIATED MICE.
J. Hugon (1965)
10.1016/0092-8674(74)90014-2
Mechanisms of steroid resistance.
C. Sibley (1974)
10.1002/PATH.1711080107
The digestion of cellular fragments within phagolysosomes in carcinoma cells
J. Kerr (1972)
Ultrastructure of a murine mammary carcinoma exposed to hyperthermia in vivo.
J. Overgaard (1976)
Myocardial cell death in the embryonic chick ventricle.
F. J. Manasek (1969)
THE SUPPRESSIVE ROLE OF MOUSE PERITONEAL PHAGOCYTES IN AGGLUTININ RESPONSE.
E. Perkins (1965)
Effect of a transient period of ischemia on myocardial cells. II. Fine structure during the first few minutes of reflow.
R. Kloner (1974)
10.1038/bjc.1972.67
The relationship of acute mesodermal cell death to the teratogenic effects of 7-OHM-12-MBA in the foetal rat.
A. M. Crawford (1972)
10.1083/JCB.60.2.448
CELL DEATH IN THE EMBRYONIC CHICK SPINAL CORD
T. M. O'Connor (1974)
10.1016/0006-291X(73)90740-7
Chromatin sub-structure. The digestion of chromatin DNA at regularly spaced sites by a nuclear deoxyribonuclease.
D. Hewish (1973)
10.1093/JNCI/34.4.459
FINE STRUCTURE OF A TRANSPLANTABLE RETICULUM CELL SARCOMA. I. LIGHT AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF VIABLE AND NECROTIC TUMOR CELLS.
M. A. Weinberger (1965)
Actinomycin D: effects on Ridgway osteogenic sarcoma in mice.
H. Schwartz (1966)
The course and nature of acinar cell death following pancreatic ligation in the guinea pig.
J. Zeligs (1975)
Early, reversible plasma membrane injury in galactosamine-induced liver cell death.
S. El-Mofty (1975)
10.1038/bjc.1972.33
Apoptosis: A Basic Biological Phenomenon with Wide-ranging Implications in Tissue Kinetics
J. Kerr (1972)
The ultrastructure of acidophilic "Councilman-like" bodies in the liver.
F. Klion (1966)
10.1111/j.1365-2184.1971.tb01523.x
AN EVALUATION OF RADIOIODINE‐LABELED 5‐IODO‐2′‐DEOXYURIDINE AS A TRACER FOR MEASURING CELL LOSS FROM SOLID TUMORS *
L. Dethlefsen (1971)
Lysosome and phagosome stability in lethal cell injury. Morphologic tracer studies in cell injury due to inhibition of energy metabolism, immune cytolysis and photosensitization.
H. Hawkins (1972)
10.1016/S0031-3025(16)38680-9
Pneumococcal bacteraemia: serotype distribution and its implication for an Australian vaccination programme
D. Hansman (1977)
Radiation injury in the neonatal canine kidney. I. Pathogenesis.
D. Eisenbrandt (1977)
10.1093/JNCI/49.6.1675
Mammary Tumor Regression. and Loss of Substrates by Tumors
P. Gullino (1972)
10.1016/S0031-3025(16)38679-2
Distribution and morphology of UV-induced epidermal cell death
J. Searle (1977)
Scientific foundations of oncology
T. Symington (1976)
Cytological and cytochemical studies on cell death and digestion in the foetal rat foot: the role of macrophages and hydrolytic enzymes.
K. J. Ballard (1968)
The biochemical pathology of liver cell necrosis.
J. Farber (1975)
10.1016/0012-1606(66)90050-9
Requirement for RNA and protein synthesis for induced regression of the tadpole tail in organ culture.
J. Tata (1966)
10.1073/PNAS.69.11.3124
Glucocorticoid action on hybrid clones derived from cultured myeloma and lymphoma cell lines.
U. Gehring (1972)
10.1016/0022-2836(70)90277-9
Properties of rapidly labelled deoxyribonucleic acid fragments isolated from the cytoplasm of primary cultures of embryonic mouse liver cells.
R. Williamson (1970)
10.1016/c2013-0-10456-4
Cellular and molecular renewal in the mammalian body
I. Cameron (1971)
10.1111/j.1469-185X.1951.tb00774.x
CELL DEATHS IN NORMAL VERTEBRATE ONTOGENY
A. Glücksmann (1951)
10.1136/jcp.27.Suppl_7.35
Death in normal and neoplastic cells
A. Wyllie (1974)
The cellular effect of 5-bromodeoxyuridine on the mammalian embryo.
J. Bannigan (1979)
Antagonistic action between cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate and estrogen in rat mammary tumor growth control.
Y. Cho-chung (1978)
Comparison of in vitro methods to determine drug-induced cell lethality.
P. R. Roper (1976)
10.1001/archderm.1975.01630240053009
Graft versus host reaction. An ultrastructural study.
G. de Dobbeleer (1975)
10.1083/JCB.22.2.481
ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN REGRESSING TAIL MUSCLES OF XENOPUS LARVAE AT METAMORPHOSIS
R. Weber (1964)
Liver cell surface localization of hepatitis B antigen and of immunoglobulins in acute and chronic hepatitis and in liver cirrhosis.
A. Alberti (1976)
Cell death and the development of limb form and skeletal pattern in normal and wingless (ws) chick embryos.
J. Hinchliffe (1973)
10.1038/284555A0
Glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis is associated with endogenous endonuclease activation
A. Wyllie (1980)
The effects of cytosine arabinoside upon proliferating epithelial cells.
R. Verbin (1972)
STUDIES ON NECROSIS OF MOUSE LIVER IN VITRO. ULTRASTRUCTURAL ALTERATIONS IN THE MITOCHONDRIA OF HEPATIC PARENCHYMAL CELLS.
B. Trump (1965)
Submicroscopic structure of cell necrobiosis of Yoshida sarcoma as revealed by electron microscopy.
G. Yasuzumi (1960)
Irreversible myocardial injury in anoxic perfused rat hearts.
C. Ganote (1975)
10.1016/0014-4800(67)90053-6
Ultrastructural studies of spleen after whole body irradiation of mice.
S. Jordan (1967)
10.3109/00313027409077341
MODES OF CELL DEATH IN RAUSCHER LEUKAEMIA VIRUS INFECTION
K. Donald (1974)
10.1002/1097-0142(197201)29:1<261::AID-CNCR2820290139>3.0.CO;2-Z
Evaluation of the mode of cell death in ehrlich ascites tumor
P. Lala (1972)
10.1038/ICB.1977.37
An electron microscopic study of the mode of donor cell death in unmodified rejection of pig liver allografts.
J. Searle (1977)
10.1002/PATH.1710970314
An electron‐microscope study of liver cell necrosis due to heliotrine
J. Kerr (1969)
10.1002/AJA.1000770104
Functional alterations in lymphoid tissue induced by adrenal cortical secretion
T. Dougherty (1945)
10.1016/0012-1606(70)90012-6
Studies on possible mechanisms of programmed cell death in the chick embryo.
Dale A. Webster (1970)
10.1016/S0022-5320(71)80105-3
Comparative ultrastructure of chick fibroblasts in vitro at early and late stages during their growth span.
M. Brock (1971)
10.1016/S0065-230X(08)60971-9
Cell death in normal and malignant tissues.
E. Cooper (1975)
10.1016/0014-4827(76)90335-9
Cell death. Are new proteins synthesized during hormone-induced tadpole tail regression?
K. Smith (1976)
Increase of RNA synthesis during mammary tumor regression.
P. Gullino (1974)
10.1111/j.1365-2184.1978.tb00883.x
Differential Radiation Response Amongst Proliferating Epithelial Cells
C. Potten (1978)
Microcinematographic and electron microscopic analysis of target cell lysis induced by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
A. Matter (1979)
An experimental study of necrosis in tumors.
W. Schatten (1962)
10.1093/JNCI/25.3.485
Autoradiographic analysis of cell proliferation in spontaneous breast cancer of C3H mouse. I. Growth and survival of cells labeled with tritiated thymidine.
M. L. Mendelsohn (1960)
10.1002/AR.1091610303
Fine structure of midline epithelium in the developing palate of the mouse
G. R. Smiley (1968)
The effects of sodium chromate on the proximal tubules of the rat kidney. Fine structural damage and lysozymuria.
A. Evan (1974)
Cellular swelling and irreversible myocardial injury. Effects of polyethylene glycol and mannitol in perfused rat hearts.
C. Ganote (1977)
10.1097/00000372-197900120-00003
Apoptosis: Its nature and implications for dermatopathology
D. Weedon (1979)
10.1016/0305-0491(75)90338-7
Lysosomes in biology and pathology
J. Dingle (1969)
10.1111/j.1600-0560.1979.tb01166.x
Spontaneous Regression in Basal Cell Carcinomas
C. Curson (1979)
10.1056/NEJM197208242870806
Corticosteroids and lymphoid cells.
H. Claman (1972)
Cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes. II. Studies on mechanism of lymphotoxin-mediated cytotoxicity.
S. M. Walker (1972)
10.1002/PATH.1711190305
Atrophy and apoptosis in the cyclical human endometrium
D. Hop Wood (1976)
10.1002/PATH.1710990210
Ultrastructural changes in lymphocytes in lymph‐nodes, spleen and thymus after sublethal and supralethal doses of X‐rays
Daniel Lucas (1969)
Effect of glucocorticoid hormones in vitro on the structural integrity of nuclei in corticosteroid-sensitive and -resistant lines of lymphosarcoma P1798.
M. Nicholson (1978)
10.1111/j.1600-0560.1975.tb00208.x
Epidermal Apoptosis: Cell Deletion by Phagocytosis
R. Olson (1975)
10.1016/0012-1606(76)90292-X
Inhibition of palatal epithelial cell death by altered protein synthesis.
R. Pratt (1976)
10.1016/0014-4827(77)90240-3
Elevated levels of cAMP alters the effect of epidermal growth factor in vitro on programmed cell death in the secondary palatal epithelium.
J. Hassell (1977)
The ultrastructure of the human epidermis in chronic graft-versus-host disease.
B. Gallucci (1979)
10.1093/JNCI/15.6.1703
A cytologic study of the intestinal epithelium of the mouse after total-body X-irradiation.
W. Montagna (1955)
The lethal actions of antitumor agents in proliferating cell systems in vivo.
F. Phillips (1975)
10.1016/S0022-5320(71)90025-6
Ultrastructural studies on prostatic involution in the rat. Mechanism of autophagy in epithelial cells, with special reference to the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum.
H. Helminen (1971)
Ischemic tissue injury.
R. Jennings (1975)
Relationship of ionic, water, and cell volume changes in cellular injury of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.
K. U. Laiho (1974)
10.1016/0014-4827(76)90617-0
Comparison of different methods of determining cell viability after exposure to cytotoxic compounds.
B. Bhuyan (1976)
Effect of a transient period of ischemia on myocardial cells. I. Effects on cell volume regulation.
D. Whalen (1974)
Cell proliferation in human basal cell carcinoma.
G. Weinstein (1970)
10.1038/265452a0
Altered cyclic AMP-binding and db cyclic AMP-unresponsiveness in vivo
Y. S. Cho-Chung (1977)
10.1073/PNAS.72.3.874
Epithelial cell death and cyclic AMP increase during palatal development.
R. Pratt (1975)
10.1016/S0016-5085(19)34985-6
Morphologic alterations induced by methotrexate in the mucosa of human proximal intestine. II. Electron microscopic observations.
J. Trier (1962)
10.1002/AJA.1000890304
Cultivation of neurons from the adult human cerebral and cerebellar cortes.
I. Costero (1951)
10.1002/PATH.1711160302
An electron‐microscope study of the mode of cell death induced by cancer‐chemotherapeutic agents in populations of proliferating normal and neoplastic cells
J. Searle (1975)
10.1677/JOE.0.0560133
Hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the mouse uterus after oestrogen treatment: an autoradiographic study.
L. Martin (1973)
Structural changes in the freeze-fractured sarcolemma of ischemic myocardium.
M. Ashraf (1977)
Lymphotoxin. A review and analysis.
W. Rosenau (1976)
10.1016/0014-2964(78)90242-6
Radiation biology in cancer research
R. Meyn (1980)
Ultrastructural and cytochemical studies on karyolytic bodies in the epithelium of the duodenal crypts of whole body x-irradiated mice.
J. Hugon (1966)
Mammary tumor regression. II. Autophagy of neoplastic cells.
Gullino Pm (1972)
10.1002/TERA.1420070306
The morphology of various types of cell death in prenatal tissues.
J. Schweichel (1973)
10.1016/0012-1606(76)90140-8
The fate of the expected fusion zone in rat fetuses with experimentally-induced cleft palate - an ultrastructural study.
P. Morgan (1976)
10.1002/1097-0142(1971)28:5<1100::AID-CNCR2820280503>3.0.CO;2-1
Analysis of the cell kinetics of human solid tumors
J. Terz (1971)
Cytological and cytochemical studies of the necrotic area of the bulbus of the chick embryo heart: phagocytosis by developing myocardial cells.
J. Hurlé (1977)
Differential effects of hydroxyurea on survival of proliferating cells in vivo.
E. Farber (1969)
10.1126/science.154.3749.604
Death in Embryonic Systems
J. W. Saunders (1966)
10.3109/00313027309060831
THE SPONTANEOUS OCCURRENCE OF APOPTOSIS IN SQUAMOUS CARCINOMAS OF THE UTERINE CERVIX
J. Searle (1973)
10.1016/0041-008X(76)90087-9
Chlorambucil-induced cell death in embryonic mouse limb buds.
T. Sadler (1976)
10.1016/0012-1606(76)90261-X
Influence of thyroid hormones on neuronal death and differentiation in larval Rana pipiens.
Robert S. Decker (1976)
Interdigital cell death during limb development of the turtle and lizard with an interpretation of evolutionary significance.
J. F. Fallon (1977)
10.1016/B978-1-4831-9826-2.50008-8
Studies of the mode of action of adrenal steroids on lymphocytes.
M. Makman (1967)
Alteratons in RNA synthesis in lymphotoxin-treated target cells.
G. Kunitomi (1975)
Target-cell membrane alterations induced by lymphotoxin. Ultrastructural observations.
D. Friend (1977)
10.1016/0014-2964(67)90023-0
Kinetics of cellular proliferation and cell loss in human carcinomas. A discussion of methods available for in vivo studies.
O. Iversen (1967)
Glucorticoid resistance in murine lymphoma and thymoma lines.
S. Bourgeois (1978)
10.1002/AJA.1001560103
Hormonal control of apoptosis in hamster uterine luminal epithelium.
B. Sandow (1979)
10.1002/PATH.1711110203
Adrenocortical cell deletion: The role of ACTH
A. Wyllie (1973)
10.1113/EXPPHYSIOL.1966.SP001850
Ultrastructural changes in lymphocytes exposed to noxious agents in vitro.
O. A. Trowell (1966)
10.1038/ICB.1977.38
Death of cells by apoptosis following attachment of specifically allergized lymphocytes in vitro.
M. Don (1977)
10.1002/PATH.1711080406
Light‐ and electron‐microscope studies of the rat kidney after administration of inhibitors of the citric acid cycle in vivo: Changes in the proximal convoluted tubule during fluorocitrate poisoning
E. Mcdowell (1972)
Perturbation of mammalian cell division. III. The topography and kinetics of extrusion subdivision.
A. M. Mullinger (1976)
A light and electron microscopic study of thermally injured cultured cells.
Buckley Ik (1972)
Morphological basis for the cytolytic effect of vinblastine and vincristine on cultured human leukemic lymphoblasts.
A. Krishan (1975)
10.1210/ENDO-103-5-1732
Hormonal control of nuclear estradiol receptor content and the luminal epithelium in the uterus of the golden hamster.
N. West (1978)
10.1084/JEM.109.5.505
THE CYTOTOXIC ACTION OF IMMUNE GAMMA GLOBULIN AND COMPLEMENT ON KREBS ASCITES TUMOR CELLS
B. Goldberg (1959)
10.1002/PATH.1711110406
Cell death in the normal neonatal rat adrenal cortex
A. Wyllie (1973)
10.1002/PATH.1711070309
Shrinkage necrosis of adrenal cortical cells
J. Kerr (1972)
10.1002/1097-0142(196611)19:11<1725::AID-CNCR2820191142>3.0.CO;2-T
Morphologic variations in human leukemic lymphoblasts (CCRF‐CEM cells) after long‐term culture and exposure to chemotherapeutic agents: A study with the electron microscope
B. G. Uzman (1966)
10.1016/0002-8703(71)90149-9
Handbuch der allgemeinen Pathologie
Paul Uhle (1865)
10.1016/S0046-8177(73)80050-4
Cellular change in human disease. A new method of pathological analysis.
B. Trump (1973)
10.1016/b978-0-123-95618-7.x5001-x
Major problems in developmental biology
M. Locke (1966)
10.1210/ENDO-103-3-936
Further studies on the role of calcium in glucocorticoid-induced lymphocytolysis.
N. Kaiser (1978)
10.1111/APM.1965.65.3.379
Ultrastructure of the rat thymus.
P. Lundin (1965)
Prevention by chlorpromazine of ischemic liver cell death.
K. Chien (1977)
An Electron-Microscope Study of Cell Deletion in the Anuran Tadpole Tail During Spontaneous Metamorphosis with Special Reference to Apoptosis of Striated Muscle Fibres
J. Kerr (1974)
10.1016/S0022-5320(72)90027-5
Effets de l'hypophysectomie et de la thyroïdectomie de la larve de Xenopus laevis D. sur le développement de son epithélium intestinal
J. Hourdry (1972)
10.1098/rspb.1975.0074
Perturbation of mammalian cell division: human mini segregants derived from mitotic cells
R. Johnson (1975)
10.1098/rspb.1976.0011
The mechanism of T cell mediated cytotoxicity II. morphological studies of cell death by time-lapse microcinematography
C. Sanderson (1976)
Ultrastructural alterations in avian leukemia myeloblasts exposed to actinomycin D in vitro.
U. Heine (1966)
Colloidal lanthanum as a marker for impaired plasma membrane permeability in ischemic dog myocardium.
S. Hoffstein (1975)
10.1097/00000441-197509000-00001
Immunological aspects of hepatitis B virus infection.
T. Edgington (1975)
Ion movements in cell injury. Effects of inhibition of respiration and glycolysis on the ultrastructure and function of the epithelial cells of the toad bladder.
A. Saladino (1968)
10.1093/JNCI/52.4.1301
Hormone-dependent stem-cell rat leukemia evoked by a series of feedings of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene.
C. Huggins (1974)
10.1002/PATH.1711180406
The effect of hyperthermia on the neuroepithelium of the 21‐day guinea‐pig foetus: Histologic and ultrastructural study
R. Wanner (1976)
10.1083/JCB.50.3.583
A study of gluco-corticosteroid-induced pyknosis in the thymus and lymph node of the adrenalectomized rat.
Ramah W. La Pushin (1971)
10.1016/0092-8674(74)90013-0
Isolation of lymphoma cell variants resistant to killing by glucocorticoids.
C. Sibley (1974)
Protective effects of cycloheximide against 1-beta-D-arabinosylcytosine-induced intestinal lesions.
R. Verbin (1973)
10.1098/rspb.1977.0100
The mechanism of T cell mediated cytotoxicity V. Morphological studies by electron microscopy
C. Sanderson (1977)
Cell redundancy in the zona-intact preimplantation mouse blastocyst: a light and electron microscope study of dead cells and their fate.
A. M. El-Shershaby (1974)
10.2307/3573634
Exposure-rate response in the prenatally irradiated rat: effects of 100 R on day 11 of gestation to the developing eye.
J. Strange (1972)
Cell death in chick embryos as studied by electron microscopy.
R. Bellairs (1961)
10.1016/0014-2964(67)90049-7
Cell loss in malignant tumours in man.
S. Refsum (1967)
10.1038/269527a0
The mechanism by which actinomycin D inhibits protein synthesis in animal cells
HERBERT L. Cooper (1977)
10.1002/AR.1090710310
Atrophy of the adrenal cortex in the rat produced by administration of large amounts of cortin
Dwight J. Ingle (1937)
10.1083/JCB.64.3.644
Action of cytochalasin D on cells of established lines. III. Zeiosis and movements at the cell surface
G. Godman (1975)
10.1038/268167A0
Independent mechanisms of cyclic AMP and glucocorticoid action
U. Gehring (1977)
10.1002/AJA.1001410407
Origin, differentiation and renewal of the four main epithelial cell types in the mouse small intestine. V. Unitarian Theory of the origin of the four epithelial cell types.
H. Cheng (1974)
Tetrazolium salt and electron-microscopic studies of cellular degeneration and necrosis in the interdigital areas of the developing chick limb.
S. Hammar (1971)
Studies on the pathogenesis of cell injury: effects of inhibitors of metabolism and membrane function on the mitochondria of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.
K. U. Laiho (1975)
10.1016/0303-7207(78)90069-2
Glucocorticoid regulation of rat thymus RNA polymerase activity: The role of RNA and protein synthesis
N. Borthwick (1978)
Acvclovir in herpes zoster.
N. Peterslund (1981)
Mechanism of lymphoma cell death induced by cyclic AMP.
P. Coffino (1975)
A probable role for protein synthesis in intestinal epithelial cell damage induced in vivo by cytosine arabinoside, nitrogen mustard, or X-irradiation.
M. Lieberman (1970)
Disorders of cell volume regulation. I. Effects of inhibition of plasma membrane adenosine triphosphatase with ouabain.
F. L. Ginn (1968)
10.1016/0014-4827(77)90246-4
Rapid nuclear cytochemical changes induced by dexamethasone in thymus lymphocytes of adrenalectomized rats.
M. R. Alvarez (1977)
10.1038/269518a0
Extreme sensitivity of some intestinal crypt cells to X and γ irradiation
CHRISTOPHER S. Potten (1977)
10.1002/PATH.1711070107
A suggested explanation for the paradoxically slow growth rate of basal‐cell carcinomas that contain numerous mitotic figures
J. Kerr (1972)
10.1016/0006-291X(74)90662-7
Isolation and purification of calcium and magnesium dependent endonuclease from rat liver nuclei.
R. Ishida (1974)
10.1002/PATH.1700900210
A histochemical study of hypertrophy and ischaemic injury of rat liver with special reference to changes in lysosomes.
J. Kerr (1965)
10.1016/0012-1606(77)90362-1
The correlation of lysosomal activity and adult phenotype in a cell-lethal mutant of Drosophila.
W. C. Clark (1977)
10.1038/bjc.1978.97
Growth Kinetics of Tumours
B. Lord (1978)
Early secondary disease in the Rhesus monkey. I. A comparative histopathologic study.
J. Woodruff (1969)
10.1016/0012-1606(68)90026-2
In vitro analysis of the control of cell death in a zone of prospective necrosis from the chick wing bud.
J. F. Fallon (1968)
Cell death during the formation of tubular heart of the chick embryo.
J. Ojeda (1975)
Aspects of tail muscle ultrastructure and its degeneration in Rana temporaria.
H. Fox (1975)
10.1038/bjc.1955.55
The Histological Structure of Some Human Lung Cancers and the Possible Implications for Radiotherapy
R. H. Thomlinson (1955)
10.1002/1097-0142(196809)22:3<611::AID-CNCR2820220317>3.0.CO;2-I
Cell proliferation kinetics in five human solid tumors
E. Frindel Malaise (1968)
10.1016/0014-4827(68)90476-X
Destruction of the nuclear morphology of thymic lymphocytes by the corticosteroid cortisol.
J. Whitfield (1968)
10.1016/0014-2964(67)90022-9
Cell loss as a factor in the growth rate of human tumours.
G. Steel (1967)
10.1016/S0140-6736(79)92178-0
THE NATURE OF PIECEMEAL NECROSIS IN CHRONIC ACTIVE HEPATITIS
J. F. R. Kerr (1979)
10.1016/0012-1606(68)90038-9
Electron microscope study of palate fusion in mouse embryos.
A. Farbman (1968)
10.1126/science.157.3793.1185
Electrical Recordings from Meningioma Cells during Cytolytic Action of Antibody and Complement
Andres Francisco Fernández Prieto (1967)
10.1016/0024-3205(74)90321-X
Programmed cell death.
R. Lockshin (1974)
10.1016/B978-1-4831-9826-2.50007-6
Thyroid hormones and the biochemistry of amphibian metamorphosis.
E. Frieden (1967)
Cell death in the posterior necrotic zone (PNZ) of the chick wing-bud: a stereoscan and ultrastructural survey of autolysis and cell fragmentation.
J. Hurlé (1978)
10.1016/S0079-6603(08)60470-5
Mammalian nucleolytic enzymes.
H. Sierakowska (1977)
10.1038/117853b0
The Pathology of Tumours
R. Willis (1926)
10.1016/S0008-8749(77)80011-7
Ultrastructural changes during T-lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis.
A. Liepins (1977)
Genetic inhibition of mesenchymal cell death and the development of form and skeletal pattern in the limbs of talpid3 (ta3) mutant chick embryos.
J. Hinchliffe (1974)
10.1002/PATH.1711260307
Morphological aspects of glucocorticoid‐induced cell death in human lymphoblastoid cells
A. M. Robertson (1978)
10.1083/JCB.19.3.641
ELECTRON MICROSCOPE OBSERVATIONS ON TINGIBLE BODY MACROPHAGES IN MOUSE SPLEEN
D. Swartzendruber (1963)
10.1073/PNAS.74.12.5579
DNA degradation in terminally differentiating lens fiber cells from chick embryos.
D. W. Appleby (1977)
10.1002/PATH.1711050103
Shrinkage necrosis: A distinct mode of cellular death
J. Kerr (1971)
10.1002/AJA.1001320303
Fine structural observations on cell death in the epidermis of the external gills of the larval frog, Rana pipiens
J. Michaels (1971)



This paper is referenced by
10.1182/BLOOD.V94.9.3169.421K30_3169_3177
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor/diphtheria toxin receptor and sensitivity to diphtheria toxin in human neutrophils.
F. Vinante (1999)
A human prolactin antagonist, hPRL-G129R, inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation through induction of apoptosis.
W. Chen (1999)
10.1021/nn100389a
Nanoparticle-induced apoptosis propagates through hydrogen-peroxide-mediated bystander killing: insights from a human intestinal epithelium in vitro model.
Anupama Thubagere (2010)
10.1292/JVMS.62.1125
Porcine circovirus induces B lymphocyte depletion in pigs with wasting disease syndrome.
T. Shibahara (2000)
Methods for preclinical evaluation of cytotoxic drugs : with special reference to the cyanoguanidine CHS 828 and hollow fiber method.
S. Hassan (2004)
10.1111/j.1462-5822.2006.00846.x
Systemic macrophage and neutrophil destruction by secondary necrosis induced by a bacterial exotoxin in a Gram‐negative septicaemia
A. do Vale (2007)
Biophysical Insights into the Oligomerization of Bclxl Apoptotic Repressor
V. Bhat (2013)
10.1586/14737159.9.2.139
Immune-mediated liver diseases: programmed cell death ligands and circulating apoptotic markers
A. Kremer (2009)
Investigation of the MUC1-independent action of circulating galectins in metastasis promotion
C. Chen (2013)
Utilisation du virus de la rougeole en virothérapie anti-tumorale
N. Boisgerault (2011)
Studying the Effect of Alpha-Tocopherol on Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis in Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells
M. S. Mehranjani (2015)
10.3746/JKFN.2010.39.8.1119
Resveratrol Induces Apoptosis in Primary Human Prostate Cancer Cells
H. Kang (2010)
10.1186/1471-2407-4-48
Is drug-induced toxicity a good predictor of response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer? -A prospective clinical study
Chintamani (2003)
10.1111/iep.12363
Deleterious effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen hydroalcoholic extract on the seminiferous epithelium of adult Balb/c mice
A. Matta (2020)
10.3389/fphar.2019.01565
Ginsenoside Rg1 as an Effective Regulator of Mesenchymal Stem Cells
F. He (2019)
10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00826
Chronic Psychological Stress, but Not Chronic Pain Stress, Influences Sexual Motivation and Induces Testicular Autophagy in Male Rats
Yunyun Shen (2020)
10.5582/BST.2011.V5.3.120
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-agonist induces apoptosis of human granulosa-luteal cells via caspase-8, -9 and -3, and poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase cleavage.
E. Park (2011)
10.1080/03079457.2012.745641
An experimental study of the pathogenicity of a duck hepatitis A virus genotype C isolate in specific pathogen free ducklings
Huanrong Zhang (2012)
10.1016/j.niox.2008.04.019
Role of S-nitrosylation in apoptosis resistance and carcinogenesis.
A. Iyer (2008)
In Vitro Cytotoxic Study and Detection of Apoptosis on Breast Cancer Cell lines MDA-MB 231 after Exposed to Azadirachta
A. Penelitian (2013)
10.1016/j.schres.2005.08.014
Apoptotic mechanisms and the synaptic pathology of schizophrenia
L. Glantz (2006)
10.1016/S0531-5131(02)00377-1
Mitochondria, oxygen metabolism and the regulation of cell death
J. Chandra (2002)
10.1016/B0-44-306660-4/50005-2
Chapter 1 – Collection and handling of blood
S. Lewis (2006)
10.1053/JOMS.2002.34414
Chondrocyte apoptosis in temporomandibular joints with disc displacement.
Z. Gu (2002)
10.1007/3-540-30794-X_4
Molecular Biology of Myelodysplasia
Philip J Nivatpumin (2006)
10.1111/J.1432-0436.2006.00076.X
Chromatin condensation of ovarian nurse and follicle cells is regulated independently from DNA fragmentation during Drosophila late oogenesis.
I. Nezis (2006)
10.1093/CARCIN/BGI261
Novel retinoblastoma binding protein RBBP9 modulates sex-specific radiation responses in vivo.
Scott Cassie (2006)
10.1007/s10541-005-0263-4
Immunology of Apoptosis and Necrosis
S. Proskuryakov (2005)
10.1016/j.brainres.2006.02.061
Retinal ganglion cell line apoptosis induced by hydrostatic pressure
A. Agar (2006)
10.1152/AJPLUNG.00300.2004
Bleomycin initiates apoptosis of lung epithelial cells by ROS but not by Fas/FasL pathway.
S. Wallach-Dayan (2006)
Anti cancer activity of Trachyspermum ammi against MCF-7 cell lines mediates by p 53 and Bcl-2 mRNA levels
(2017)
10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600149
Epilepsy and Apoptosis Pathways
D. Henshall (2005)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar