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Cell Death: The Significance Of Apoptosis.
A. Wyllie, J. Kerr, A. R. Currie
Published 1980 · Biology, Medicine
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Publisher Summary The classification of cell death can be based on morphological or biochemical criteria or on the circumstances of its occurrence. Currently, irreversible structural alteration provides the only unequivocal evidence of death; biochemical indicators of cell death that are universally applicable have to be precisely defined and studies of cell function or of reproductive capacity do not necessarily differentiate between death and dormant states from which recovery may be possible. It has also proved feasible to categorize most if not all dying cells into one or the other of two discrete and distinctive patterns of morphological change, which have, generally, been found to occur under disparate but individually characteristic circumstances. One of these patterns is the swelling proceeding to rupture of plasma and organelle membranes and dissolution of organized structure—termed “coagulative necrosis.” It results from injury by agents, such as toxins and ischemia, affects cells in groups rather than singly, and evokes exudative inflammation when it develops in vivo. The other morphological pattern is characterized by condensation of the cell with maintenance of organelle integrity and the formation of surface protuberances that separate as membrane-bounded globules; in tissues, these are phagocytosed and digested by resident cells, there being no associated inflammation.
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