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Sequencing End-labeled DNA With Base-specific Chemical Cleavages.
A. Maxam, W. Gilbert
Published 1980 · Biology, Medicine
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Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the sequencing end-labeled DNA with base-specific chemical cleavages. In the chemical DNA sequencing method, one end-labels the DNA, partially cleaves it at each of the four bases in four reactions, orders the products by size on a slab gel, and then reads the sequence from an autoradiogram by noting which base-specific agent cleaved at each successive nucleotide along the strand. This technique sequences the DNA made in and purified from cells. No enzymatic copying in vitro is required, and either single- or double-stranded DNA can be sequenced. Most chemical schemes that cleave at one or two of the four bases involve three consecutive steps: modification of a base, removal of the modified base from its sugar, and DNA strand scission at that sugar. Base-specific chemical cleavage is only one step in sequencing DNA. The chapter presents techniques for producing discrete DNA fragments, end-labeling DNA, segregating end-labeled fragments, extracting DNA from gels, and the protocols for partially cleaving it at specific bases using the chemical reactions. The chapter also discusses the electrophoresis of the chemical cleavage products on long-distance sequencing gels and a guide for troubleshooting problems in sequencing patterns.
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