Endogenous Bacterial Endophthalmitis: An East Asian Experience And A Reappraisal Of A Severe Ocular Affliction.
Published 2000 · Medicine
PURPOSE To report 32 eyes of 27 patients with endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis seen over a 4 year period. Features and outcomes of this condition in the current series and the cases reported in the literature from 1986-1998 were reviewed. DESIGN Retrospective noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS All patients with this condition seen at the three participating general hospitals were included. INTERVENTION A review of the systemic and ocular characteristics, therapeutic methods, and final outcomes in patients afflicted with this condition. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Features studied included patients' demographic characteristics, microbiology, source of infection, ocular features, therapeutic interventions, final visual and anatomic outcomes. RESULTS Nineteen (70%) of the 27 incriminating organisms in this case series were gram negative microbes, with Klebsiella pneumoniae infections alone being responsible in 16 (60%) cases. Hepatobiliary tract infection was the source of bacteremia in 13 (48%) patients. Only nine (28%) eyes obtained good final visual acuity (20/120 or better), and two eyes were enucleated/eviscerated. A literature review of 209 patients with endogenous endophthalmitis over a 12 year period showed a similar increase in the frequency of gram negative microbes as the responsible organism, especially among the East Asian population. Overall, 22% had bilateral involvement; two thirds of patients had predisposing factor(s) or underlying illness(es), and diabetes mellitus was present in 46%. Thirty-four percent of all eyes obtained counting finger or better final vision, and 16% had their eyes eviscerated or enucleated. Infections with virulent organisms (gram negative rods, Serratia, Bacillus) usually denoted a grave visual prognosis; however, a media that was not opaque on presentation was usually associated with a good prognosis. CONCLUSION Metastatic ocular infection is not uncommon despite the availability of modern antibiotic therapy. Among the East Asian population, the patient at highest risk is a diabetic patient with Klebsiella pneumoniae hepatobiliary infection. In contrast, in the Caucasian population, this condition occurs in predisposed patients with gram-positive bacteremia arising from endocarditis or skin/joint infections. The final visual outcome in patients with endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis in the recent 12 years has not differed significantly from five decades ago.