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Nasal Delivery Of Epitope Based Vaccines.
W. Olszewska, M. Steward
Published 2001 · Medicine, Biology
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Essentially all of the currently available vaccines are based on the use of inactivated or live-attenuated pathogens. However, these vaccines have several shortcomings, such as difficulties of in vitro culturing, biohazard risks, as well as loss of efficacy due to the genetic variations seen in many viruses. These problems may potentially be solved by immunising with epitope-based vaccines consisting of rationally designed protective epitopes, appropriately presented and easy to deliver, which are capable of stimulating effective B-cell, T-cell and cytotoxic immune responses whilst avoiding potentially hazardous and undesirable effects. Furthermore, the use of a mixture of defined epitopes could lead to an effective broad range immune response which has the potential to overcome both strain specificity of the pathogen and the MHC restriction of the host. Epitope-based vaccines can be designed to involve the use of synthetic materials that can be available in unlimited quantities and posing no biohazard. Other approaches include the use of naked DNA or recombinant viruses or bacteria expressing the epitopes. An important objective in the development of such vaccines is that they should be effective when delivered via the mucosal route and effective in the presence of maternal antibodies. In this review, we present examples of the use of various epitope-based vaccine constructs, focussing particularly upon their intranasal delivery to the immune system.
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