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Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Is An Osmoprotectant In Human Neuroblastoma Cells

C. C. Matthews, H. Odeh, E. Feldman
Published 1997 · Biology, Medicine

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A role in neuronal homeostasis is suggested by the persistent expression of the insulin-like growth factors in the adult nervous system. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, a well-characterized in vitro model of human neurons, were used to investigate the effects of hyperosmotic stress on neurons. Neuronal DNA fragmentation was detected within 1 h and pyknotic nuclei were apparent in attached cells after 12 h of hyperosmotic stress. In parallel, flow cytometry measurements revealed a sudden increase in the rate of cells irreversibly undergoing programmed cell death after 12 h of hyperosmotic exposure. Insulin-like growth factor-I delayed the onset of a laddered DNA fragmentation pattern for 24 h and provided continuing protection against hyperosmotic exposure for 72 h. Amino acid uptake was decreased in hyperosmotic medium even in the presence of insulin-like growth factor-I; the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide neither prevented the induction of programmed cell death nor interfered with the ability of insulin-like growth factor-I to act as an osmoprotectant in hyperosmotic medium. Cysteine and serine protease inhibitors each prevented DNA fragmentation under hyperosmotic conditions, suggesting that the osmoprotectant activity of insulin-like growth factor-I involves the suppression of protease activity. Collectively, these results indicate that insulin-like growth factor-I limits the death of neurons under stressful environmental conditions, suggesting that it may provide a candidate therapy in the treatment of hyperosmolar coupled neurological injury.
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