Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Repeated Stimuli For Axonal Growth Causes Motoneuron Death In Adult Rats: The Effect Of Botulinum Toxin Followed By Partial Denervation

C. M. White, L. Greensmith, G. Vrbóva
Published 1999 · Biology, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Axons of motoneurons to tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles of adult rats were induced to sprout by injecting botulinum toxin into them, by partial denervation or by a combination of the two procedures. Ten weeks later, the number of motoneurons innervating the control and operated tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles was established by retrograde labelling with horseradish peroxidase. In the same preparations, the motoneurons were also stained with a Nissl stain (gallocyanin) to reveal motoneurons in the sciatic pool. Examination of the spinal cords from animals treated with botulinum toxin showed that the number of retrogradely labelled cells and those stained with gallocyanin in the ventral horn on the treated compared to the control side was unchanged. In rats that had their L4 spinal nerve sectioned on one side, the number of retrogradely labelled cells on the operated side was 48+/-3% (n = 5) of that present in the control unoperated ventral horn. Thus, just over half the innervation was removed by cutting the L4 spinal nerve. Counts made from gallocyanin-stained sections showed that 94+/-4% (n = 5) of motoneurons were present in the ventral horn on the operated side. Thus, section of the L4 spinal nerve did not lead to any death of motoneurons. In rats that had their muscles injected with botulinum toxin three weeks prior to partial denervation, the number of retrogradely labelled cells was reduced from 48+/-3% (n = 5) to 35+/-4% (n = 5). Moreover, only 67+/-5% (n = 5) of motoneurons stained with gallocyanin, suggesting that a proportion of motoneurons died after this combined procedure. This result was supported by experiments in which motor unit numbers in extensor digitorum longus muscles were determined by measurements of stepwise increments of force in response to stimulation of the motor nerve with increasing stimulus intensity. In partially denervated extensor digitorum longus muscles, 16.6+/-0.7 (n = 5) motor units could be identified, and in animals treated with botulinum toxin prior to partial denervation only 13.3+/-0.9 (n = 3) motor units were present. Taken together, these results show that treatment with botulinum toxin followed by partial denervation causes motoneuron death in adult rats.
This paper references
10.1007/BF01003075
A new specific, sensitive and non-carcinogenic reagent for the demonstration of horseradish peroxidase
J. Hanker (2005)
10.1016/S0166-2236(84)80180-0
Sprouting of motor nerves in adult muscles: a recapitulation of ontogeny
M. Brown (1984)
10.1016/0006-8993(78)91116-2
The effect of a conditioning lesion on the regeneration of motor axons
I. Mcquarrie (1978)
10.1152/AJPLEGACY.1945.145.1.48
Functional changes in nerve and muscle after partial denervation.
H. Hines (1945)
10.1046/j.1460-9568.1999.00640.x
Overexpression of GAP‐43 induces prolonged sprouting and causes death of adult motoneurons
D. I. Harding (1999)
10.1146/ANNUREV.NE.04.030181.000313
Motor nerve sprouting.
M. C. Brown (1981)
10.1113/jphysiol.1977.sp011711
Reaction of intact spinal motoneurones to partial denervation of the muscle.
P. Huizar (1977)
10.1113/jphysiol.1967.sp008342
Properties of motor units in fast and slow skeletal muscles of the rat
R. Close (1967)
10.1111/j.1460-9568.1996.tb01292.x
GAP‐43 mRNA in Mouse Motoneurons Undergoing Axonal Sprouting in Response to Muscle Paralysis or Partial Denervation
M. Bisby (1996)
10.1016/S0166-2236(96)20034-7
Motoneurone survival: a functional approach.
L. Greensmith (1996)
BILATERAL ANTERIOR VENAE CAVAE IN A LION CUB.
Franklin Kj (1946)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.11-03-00657.1991
Axotomy-like changes in cat motoneuron electrical properties elicited by botulinum toxin depend on the complete elimination of neuromuscular transmission
M. Pinter (1991)
10.1016/S0306-4522(98)00037-2
Motoneurons innervating partially denervated rat hindlimb muscles remain susceptible to axotomy-induced cell death
D. I. Harding (1998)
Motor localization and the effects of nerve injury on the ventral horn cells of the spinal cord.
Romanes Gj (1946)
10.1016/S0006-8993(97)01099-8
Recovery of rat skeletal muscles after partial denervation is enhanced by treatment with nifedipine
C. M. White (1998)
10.1016/0014-5793(93)80448-4
Botulinum neurotoxins serotypes A and E cleave SNAP‐25 at distinct COOH‐terminal peptide bonds
G. Schiavo (1993)
10.1093/AJCP/47.1.74
Staining for nerve fiber and cholinesterase activity in fresh frozen sections.
T. Namba (1967)
10.1016/0092-8674(95)90168-X
Overexpression of the neural growth-associated protein GAP-43 induces nerve sprouting in the adult nervous system of transgenic mice
L. Aigner (1995)
10.1113/jphysiol.1982.sp014364
Recovery of slow and fast muscles following nerve injury during early post‐natal development in the rat.
M. Lowrie (1982)
10.1016/0006-8993(82)91270-7
Protein synthesis and axonal transport in goldfish retinal ganglion cells during regeneration accelerated by a conditioning lesion
I. Mcquarrie (1982)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.08-09-03181.1988
Changes in cytoskeletal proteins in the rat facial nucleus following axotomy
W. Tetzlaff (1988)
10.1113/jphysiol.1949.sp004316
The peripheral action of Cl. botulinum toxin
N. Ambache (1949)
10.1016/0165-3806(87)90086-1
Permanent changes in muscle and motoneurones induced by nerve injury during a critical period of development of the rat.
M. Lowrie (1987)
10.1016/0014-4886(82)90180-7
Effect of repeated hypoglossal nerve lesions on the number of neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus of adult rats
J. Arvidsson (1982)
10.1038/365160A0
Botulinum neurotoxin A selectively cleaves the synaptic protein SNAP-25
J. Blasi (1993)



This paper is referenced by
10.1080/17482960701292837
Guidelines for the preclinical in vivo evaluation of pharmacological active drugs for ALS/MND: Report on the 142nd ENMC international workshop
A. Ludolph (2007)
10.1016/j.neuroscience.2003.07.013
Over-expression of parvalbumin in transgenic mice rescues motoneurons from injury-induced cell death
J. Dekkers (2004)
10.3390/toxins12070434
Botulinum Toxin and Neuronal Regeneration after Traumatic Injury of Central and Peripheral Nervous System
S. Luvisetto (2020)
years. Here we present a cross-sectional analysis of paralyzed thenar muscle and motor unit contractile properties in two datasets obtained from different subjects who sustained a cervical SCI at different ages (46
Christine K. Thomas (2014)
10.14670/HH-11-983
In search for a gold-standard procedure to count motor neurons in the spinal cord.
M. Ferrucci (2018)
Strategies to prevent motoneuron degeneration in models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
L. G. Bilsland (2006)
10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.09.069
The effect of peripheral nerve injury on disease progression in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
P. S. Sharp (2005)
10.1038/nm1021
Treatment with arimoclomol, a coinducer of heat shock proteins, delays disease progression in ALS mice
D. Kieran (2004)
10.14730/AAPS.2013.19.1.64
Delay Phenomenon by Botulinum Toxin A in Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous (TRAM) Flap of Rat
Joo Chul Lee (2013)
10.1006/exnr.2002.7945
Upregulation of Heat Shock Proteins Rescues Motoneurones from Axotomy-Induced Cell Death in Neonatal Rats
B. Kalmar (2002)
10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.01.046
Inhibition of calpains, by treatment with leupeptin, improves motoneuron survival and muscle function in models of motoneuron degeneration
D. Kieran (2004)
10.1016/B978-0-7216-9491-7.50034-X
Chapter 31 – Pathology of Peripheral Neuron Cell Bodies
M. Groves (2005)
10.1097/01.prs.0000197214.57838.9b
Versatility of Botulinum Toxin: A Use in Stabilization of Pedicled Muscle Flaps
Esra Celik (2006)
10.1016/J.DEVBRAINRES.2003.09.005
Manipulating transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction of neonatal rats alters the expression of ChAT and GAP-43 in motoneurons.
P. S. Sharp (2003)
10.1016/j.otohns.2008.10.033
Dosage changes in patients with long-term botulinum toxin use for laryngeal dystonia
H. Birkent (2009)
10.3389/fnint.2014.00002
Age at spinal cord injury determines muscle strength
C. Thomas (2014)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar