Please confirm you are human (Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search
Neurophysiological Correlate Of Clinical Signs In Parkinson's Disease
J. Valls-Solé, F. Valldeoriola
Published 2002 · Psychology, Medicine
Save to my Library
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
Clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not always coincident with pathological findings. A better characterization of the disease from the results of studies in various areas of neuroscience can help in improving the rate of diagnostic certainty. Neurophysiology is among the techniques with better chances to furnish specific diagnostic cues on motor aspects of the disease. Neurophysiology provides quantifiable data using non-invasive, relatively inexpensive, methods. Neurophysiological tests can be applied with no previous preparation, and repeated many times without dangerous consequences. To be rewarding, however, neurophysiological examination should be done in close cooperation between the clinician who detects relevant specific signs, and the neurophysiologist who devises the most demonstrative methods to document those signs. In this review, we describe the neurophysiological correlate of symptoms and signs in patients with PD, and particularly their pathophysiological meaning, with special focus on those that could be more helpful to the neurologists in establishing differences with respect to other diseases presenting with parkinsonism.
This paper references
Prepulse modulation of the startle reaction and the blink reflex in normal human subjects
J. Valls-Solé (1999)
Corneal and blink reflexes in Parkinson's disease with “on‐off” fluctuations
R. Agostino (1987)
Abnormal facilitation of the response to transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease
J. Valls-Solé (1994)
High-frequency stimulation of the globus pallidus internalis in Parkinson's disease: a study of seven cases.
C. Gross (1997)
Changes in human motor cortex excitability induced by dopaminergic and anti-dopaminergic drugs.
U. Ziemann (1997)
Parkinson's disease rigidity
R. Cantello (1991)
Neurophysiological characterization of parkinsonian syndromes
J. Valls-Solé (2000)
THE BENT BACK OF SOLDIERS
A. Hurst (1918)
The evolution of diagnosis in early Parkinson disease. Parkinson Study Group.
J. Jankovic (2000)
Blink reflex recovery curves in blepharospasm, torticollis spasmodica, and hemifacial spasm
J. Eekhof (1996)
Effects of focal transcranial magnetic stimulation on simple reaction time to acoustic, visual and somatosensory stimuli.
A. Pascual-Leone (1992)
A physiological mechanism of bradykinesia.
M. Hallett (1980)
Neurophysiology of Parkinson's disease: from basic research to clinical correlates
D. Centonze (1999)
Waiting in readiness: gating in attention and motor preparation.
C. Brunia (1993)
Stimulus-sensitive myoclonus in akinetic-rigid syndromes.
R. Chen (1992)
Abnormalities of short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials in parkinsonian patients.
P. Rossini (1989)
Motor skill learning in Parkinson's disease
R. Agostino (1996)
Reaction time and acoustic startle in normal human subjects
J. Valls-Solé (1995)
Blink reflex studies in focal dystonias: Enhanced excitability of brainstem interneurons in cranial dystonia and spasmodic torticollis
E. Tolosa (1988)
Chronic administration of L-dopa affects the movement-related cortical potentials of patients with Parkinson's disease.
A. Fève (1992)
Muscle relaxation in Parkinson's disease: A reaction time study
M. Grasso (1996)
Arm function after stroke. An evaluation of grip strength as a measure of recovery and a prognostic indicator.
A. Sunderland (1989)
Action monitoring, error detection, and the basal ganglia: an ERP study
M. Falkenstein (2001)
Motor cortical inhibition and the dopaminergic system. Pharmacological changes in the silent period after transcranial brain stimulation in normal subjects, patients with Parkinson's disease and drug-induced parkinsonism.
A. Priori (1994)
Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. II. The place of subthalamic nucleus and external pallidium in basal ganglia circuitry
A. Parent (1995)
Postural tremor of Parkinson's disease.
J. Henderson (1994)
Cognitive impairments in Parkinson's disease.
B. Levin (1992)
Neurophysiological identification of the subthalamic nucleus in surgery for Parkinson's disease
W. Hutchison (1998)
Increased shortening reaction in Parkinson's disease reflects a difficulty in modulating long loop reflexes
Christoph Diener (1987)
Programming and execution of movement in Parkinson's disease.
M. Sheridan (1987)
Sympathetic skin response--a method of assessing unmyelinated axon dysfunction in peripheral neuropathies.
B. Shahani (1984)
Postural and action myoclonus in patients with parkinsonian type multiple system atrophy
G. Salazar (2000)
The behaviour of the long-latency stretch reflex in patients with Parkinson's disease
J. Rothwell (1983)
Movement disorders : neurologic principles and practice
R. Watts (1997)
Neurophysiology of sensorimotor integration in Parkinson's disease.
P. Rossini (1998)
The audiospinal reaction in parkinsonian patients reflects functional changes in reticular nuclei
P. J. Delwaide (1993)
Parkinsonian bradykinesia is due to depression in the rate of rise of muscle activity
E. Godaux (1992)
Parkinson's disease. Update in diagnosis and symptom management.
J. Marjama-Lyons (2001)
The pedunculopontine nucleus and Parkinson's disease.
P. Pahapill (2000)
OBSERVATIONS ON BLINK REFLEXES
G. Rushworth (1962)
Muscle spindle activity in alternating tremor of Parkinsonism and in clonus.
K. Hagbarth (1975)
Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia
J. Yelnik (2002)
Effects of a startling acoustic stimulus on reaction time in different parkinsonian syndromes
F. Valldeoriola (1998)
Movement preparation in Parkinson's disease. The use of advance information.
G. Stelmach (1986)
Motor responses to sudden limb displacements in primates with specific CNS lesions and in human patients with motor system disorders.
R. Lee (1975)
Resetting of tremor by mechanical perturbations: A comparison of essential tremor and parkinsonian tremor
R. Lee (1981)
Cortical inhibition in Parkinson's disease. A study with paired magnetic stimulation.
A. Berardelli (1996)
Cutaneous reflexes in Parkinson's disease
P. Fuhr (1992)
Electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in advanced Parkinson's disease.
P. Limousin (1998)
Pathophysiology of bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease.
A. Berardelli (2001)
The effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on reaction time in progressive supranuclear palsy
J. Molinuevo (2000)
Blink reflex studies in patients with Parkinsonism before and during therapy
C. Penders (1971)
Akinesia in Parkinson's disease
R. S. Schwab (1959)
Projections from basal ganglia to tegmentum: a subcortical route for explaining the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease signs?
P. J. Delwaide (2000)
Could seborrhoeic dermatitis be implicated in the pathogenesis of parkinsonism?
C. J. O'neill (1994)
Physiological mechanisms of rigidity in Parkinson's disease.
A. Berardelli (1983)
Reciprocal continuous inhibition in rigidity of Parkinsonism.
N. Bathien (1977)
Shortening reaction of human tibialis anterior
A. Berardelli (1984)
Comparative analysis of gait in Parkinson's disease, cerebellar ataxia and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy.
G. Ebersbach (1999)
Practice effects on the preprogramming of discrete movements in Parkinson's disease.
C. Worringham (1990)
Progress in clinical neurophysiology: Vol. 4. Cerebral motor control in man: Long loop mechanisms. Edited by J. E. Desmedt. S. Karger, Basel, 1979, 394 pp. $70.75
J. Stein (1980)
The functional anatomy of basal ganglia disorders
R. Albin (1989)
Electromyography of the external anal sphincter in patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy: Frequency of abnormal spontaneous activity and polyphasic motor unit potentials
J. Schwarz (1997)
A motor programme for the initiation of forward‐oriented movements in humans.
P. Crenna (1991)
Reaction time in Parkinson's disease.
E. Evarts (1981)
Motor unit changes in sporadic idiopathic Parkinson's disease
J. Caviness (2000)
Is Camptocormia a Primary Muscular Disease?
M. Laroche (1995)
Implication of the Subthalamic Nucleus in the Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease
A. Benazzouz (2000)
Response choice in Parkinson's disease. The effects of uncertainty and stimulus-response compatibility.
R. Brown (1993)
Physiology and clinical applications of hand muscle reflexes.
G. Deuschl (1990)
Pathophysiology of blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia.
A. Berardelli (1985)
Reaction times and attention in Parkinson's disease.
C. Bloxham (1987)
The corticomotoneurone connection is normal in Parkinson's disease
J. Dick (1984)
Dopaminergic effects on simple and choice reaction time performance in Parkinson's disease
S. Pullman (1988)
Impact of deep brain stimulation on upper limb akinesia in Parkinson's disease
R. Brown (1999)
Abnormalities of the blink reflex in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.
S. Smith (1989)
Inter‐ and intralimb oscillator coupling in Parkinsonian tremor
J. Hurtado (2000)
Disorder of interneurons in Parkinsonism. The orbicularis oculi reflex to paired stimuli.
J. Kimura (1973)
Corticocortical inhibition in human motor cortex.
T. Kujirai (1993)
Relationship between tremor and the onset of rapid voluntary contraction in Parkinson's disease.
M. Wierzbicka (1993)
Age-dependent decline in motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude: with a comment on changes in Parkinson's disease.
A. Eisen (1991)
Sympathetic skin response asymmetry in early stage idiopathic Parkinson's disease
S. Fusina (1999)
Does tremor pace repetitive voluntary motor behavior in parkinson's disease?
E. Logigian (1991)
Firing patterns of pallidal cells in Parkinsonian patients correlate with their pre‐pallidotomy clinical scores
W. El-Deredy (2000)
Research diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease.
Ward Cd (1990)
Sleep in patients with Parkinson's disease and normal subiects prior to and following levodopa administration
A. Kales (1971)
Learning in Parkinson’s disease: eyeblink conditioning, declarative learning, and procedural learning
M. Sommer (1999)
Neurophysiological investigations in patients with head tremor
J. Valls-Solé (1997)
Unloading and shortening reactions in Parkinson's disease.
R. Angel (1978)
How accurately can Parkinson's disease be diagnosed?
W. Koller (1992)
Effects of chronic levodopa and pergolide treatment on cortical excitability in patients with Parkinson's disease: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study
A. Strafella (2000)
The control of an action in Parkinson’s disease
M. Gentilucci (1999)
Autonomic dysfunction in movement disorders
K. Chaudhuri (2001)
Functional imaging in Parkinson's disease.
A. Dagher (2001)
Acute effects of levodopa on wrist movement in Parkinson's disease. Kinematics, volitional EMG modulation and reflex amplitude modulation.
M. T. Johnson (1994)
A primary acoustic startle circuit: lesion and stimulation studies
M. Davis (1982)
[Diagnostic criteria for idiopathic Parkinson's disease].
F. Viallet (2000)
Etude de la reaction de raccourcissement presente chez l'homme dans diverses affections neurologiques. Role des afferences articulaires
N. Bathien (1981)
Blink rates and disorders of movement
C. Karson (1984)
Clinical neurophysiology of akinesia.
M. Hallett (1990)
Chronic subthalamic nucleus stimulation reduces medication requirements in Parkinson’s disease
E. Moro (1999)
Two unusual gait disturbances: astasia abasia and camptocormia.
M. Sinel (1990)
Single-unit analysis of the pallidum, thalamus and subthalamic nucleus in parkinsonian patients
M. Magnin (2000)
Double-blind evaluation of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in advanced Parkinson's disease
R. Kumar (1998)
Reaction time and spinal excitability in a simple reaction time task
P. Michie (1976)
Evidence for a quantitative association between EMG stretch responses and Parkinsonian rigidity
J. Mortimer (1979)
Synchrony of rest tremor in multiple limbs in Parkinson's disease: evidence for multiple oscillators
H. Ben-Pazi (2001)
Parkinsonism and neck extensor myopathy: a new syndrome or coincidental findings?
H. Askmark (2001)
Enhancement of motor cortical excitability in humans by non-invasive electrical stimulation appears prior to voluntary movement.
A. Starr (1988)
Preparation of manual movements in hemiparkinsonism.
R. Rafal (1989)
Movement disorders 3: Marsden C D, Fahn S Butterworth-Heinemann UK, 1994 ISBN 0 750614 12 9 529pp RRP $110.00
D. Serisier (1995)
Reaction time of patients with Parkinson's disease, with reference to asymmetry of neurological signs.
F. Yokochi (1985)
Reaction times in Parkinson disease.
K. Heilman (1976)
Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a clinico-pathological study of 100 cases.
A. Hughes (1992)
Autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease
C. Götz (1986)
Twenty-four-hour tremor recordings in the evaluation of the treatment of Parkinson's disease
E. Scholz (2004)
The correlation between P300 alterations and regional cerebral blood flow in non-demented Parkinson's disease
L. Wang (2000)
The relation between EMG activity and kinematic parameters strongly supports a role of the action tremor in parkinsonian bradykinesia
Maria Chiara Carboncini (2001)
Modulation of postural tremors at the wrist by supramaximal electrical median nerve shocks in essential tremor, Parkinson's disease and normal subjects mimicking tremor.
T. Britton (1993)
Primate models of movement disorders of basal ganglia origin
M. Delong (1990)
Functional architecture of basal ganglia circuits: neural substrates of parallel processing
G. E. Alexander (1990)
Assessment of motor neuron excitability in parkinsonian rigidity by the F wave
G. Abbruzzese (2004)
Physiological and pharmacological aids in the differential diagnosis of tremor.
B. Shahani (1976)
Cardiac Sympathetic Denervation in Parkinson Disease
D. Goldstein (2000)
An Explanation for Reflex Blink Hyperexcitability in Parkinson’s Disease. I. Superior Colliculus
M. A. Basso (1996)
Training improves the speed of aimed movements in Parkinson's disease.
T. Platz (1998)
Impairment of motor cortex activation and deactivation in Parkinson's disease
R. Chen (2001)
Facilitation and inhibition of the human startle blink reflexes by stimulus anticipation.
J. Ison (1990)
Sympathetic skin response and R‐R interval variability in multipele system atrophy and idiopathic Parkinson's disease
R. Bordet (1996)
Short‐latency autogenic inhibition in patients with parkinsonian rigidity
P. J. Delwaide (1991)
Masseter inhibitory reflex in movement disorders. Huntington's chorea, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and unilateral masticatory spasm.
G. Cruccu (1991)
A medial to lateral shift in pre-movement cortical activity in hemi-Parkinson's disease
R. Cunnington (2001)
Striated anal sphincter denervation in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy
F. Valldeoriola (1995)
The auditory startle response in the Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome and Parkinson's disease.
M. Vidailhet (1992)
Strength in Parkinson's disease: Relationshp to rate of force generation and clinical status
D. Corcos (1996)
A prospective longitudinal study of depression, cognitive decline, and physical impairments in patients with Parkinson's disease.
S. Starkstein (1992)
Neuronal loss in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in Parkinson disease and in progressive supranuclear palsy.
E. Hirsch (1987)
Camptocormia (bent spine) in patients with Parkinson's disease—Characterization and possible pathogenesis of an unusual phenomenon
R. Djaldetti (1999)
Neurophysiological effects of stimulation through electrodes in the human subthalamic nucleus.
P. Ashby (1999)
Sphincter EMG and differential diagnosis of multiple system atrophy
D. Vodušek (2001)
Auditory effects on the electrically elicited blink reflex in patients with Parkinson's disease.
K. Nakashima (1993)
Tremor in Parkinson's disease.
J. Carr (2002)
Cardiovascular reflex testing contributes to clinical evaluation and differential diagnosis of Parkinsonian syndromes
B. Holmberg (2001)
The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus: Where the striatum meets the reticular formation
W. Inglis (1995)
PS-42-10 Abnormal modulation of the soleus H reflex by transcranial cortical magnetic stimuli in patients with Parkinson's disease
R. Álvarez (1995)
Olfactory function in patients with Parkinson's disease.
K. Ansari (1975)
Relationship between electromyographic activity and clinically assessed rigidity studied at the wrist joint in Parkinson's disease.
R. Meara (1992)
Changes in excitability of motor cortical circuitry in patients with parkinson's disease
M. C. Ridding (1995)
Critères de diagnostic de la maladie de Parkinson idiopathique
F. Viallet (2000)
Posture‐related changes of soleus H‐reflex excitability
F. Goulart (2000)
Olfactory function in Parkinson's disease subtypes
M. Stern (1994)
Resetting of essential tremor and postural tremor in Parkinson's disease with transcranial magnetic stimulation
A. Pascual-Leone (1994)
The effects of posteroventral pallidotomy on the preparation and execution of voluntary hand and arm movements in Parkinson's disease.
P. Limousin (1999)
EMG analysis of stereotyped voluntary movements in man.
M. Hallett (1975)
The pathophysiology of tremor
G. Deuschl (2001)
An Explanation for Reflex Blink Hyperexcitability in Parkinson’s Disease. II. Nucleus Raphe Magnus
M. A. Basso (1996)
Spinal cord inhibitory mechanisms in Parkinson's disease
S. Lelli (1991)
Audio-spinal influence in man studied by the H-reflex and its possible role on rhythmic movements synchronized to sound.
S. Rossignol (1976)
Sympathetic skin response and cardiovascular autonomic function tests in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy with autonomic failure
M. de Marinis (2000)
Levodopa withdrawal after bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in advanced Parkinson disease.
J. Molinuevo (2000)
Criteria for diagnosing Parkinson's disease
D. Calne (1992)
SPECT and PET imaging of the dopaminergic system in Parkinson's disease
T. Bruecke (2000)
Simple and choice reaction time and the use of advance information for motor preparation in Parkinson's disease.
M. Jahanshahi (1992)
Akinesia in Parkinson's disease. I. Shortening of simple reaction time with focal, single‐pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation
A. Pascual-Leone (1994)
This paper is referenced by
Event-Related Potential Study of Executive Dysfunctions in a Speeded Reaction Task in Cocaine Addiction.
E. Sokhadze (2008)
Investigation of EEG abnormalities in the early stage of Parkinson’s disease
Chunxiao Han (2013)
Human Central Nervous System Circuits Examined in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Using the Electrodes Implanted for Deep Brain Stimulation
J. Costa (2011)
How satisfactory are clinical neurophysiology training programs for neurologists?
J. Valls-Solé (2007)
EMG and MMG activities of agonist and antagonist muscles in Parkinson's disease patients during absolute submaximal load holding.
Jarosław Marusiak (2009)
Role of Electrophysiology in Diagnosis and Research in Atypical Parkinsonian Disorders
J. Valls-Solé (2005)
The Effects of Acute Tryptophan Depletion on Movement, Mood, and Cognition in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Healthy Older Persons
J. Mace (2007)
Running head : EEG analysis of Parkinson ’ s disease during emotion processing 1 On the analysis of EEG power , frequency and asymmet ry in Parkinson ’ s disease during emotion processing
Yuvaraj Ramachandran Muthulakshmi (2014)
Entrenamiento de la marcha en el lesionado medular uso de sistemas electromecánicos y estimulación transcraneal no invasiva
Jesús Benito Penalva (2013)
A novel Parkinson’s Disease Diagnosis Index using higher-order spectra features in EEG signals
Yuvaraj Rajamanickam (2016)
Assessment of excitability in brainstem circuits mediating the blink reflex and the startle reaction
J. Valls-Solé (2012)
H reflex modulation by transcranial magnetic stimulation in spinal cord injury subjects after gait training with electromechanical systems
J. B. Penalva (2010)
EEG Microstates Change in Response to Increase in Dopaminergic Stimulation in Typical Parkinson’s Disease Patients
J. I. Serrano (2018)
On the analysis of EEG power, frequency and asymmetry in Parkinson’s disease during emotion processing
Yuvaraj Ramachandran Muthulakshmi (2013)
Effects of postural and voluntary muscle contraction on modulation of the soleus H reflex by transcranial magnetic stimulation
J. Gúzman-Lopéz (2015)
Modulation of the soleus H reflex by electrical subcortical stimuli in humans
J. Costa (2011)
Biomarkers and Parkinson's disease.
A. Michell (2004)
The effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on vibratory-induced presynaptic inhibition of the soleus H reflex
J. Gúzman-Lopéz (2012)
A motor cortex excitability and gait analysis on Parkinsonian patients
F. Vacherot (2010)
Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Physical Function and Motor Signs in Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
C. Chung (2016)
Load force during manual transport in Parkinson's disease
X. Guo (2004)
Capítulo 8 – La estimulación magnética en el estudio de las lesiones medulares
J. Valls-Solé (2014)
Electromyography and mechanomyography of elbow agonists and antagonists in Parkinson disease
Jarosław Marusiak (2009)
Differential expression of HDAC and HAT genes in atrophying skeletal muscle
Adam W. Beharry (2015)
The effect of acute muscle tendon vibration on motor unit activity in the contralateral, more-affected limb in Parkinson’s disease
Kaylee Agnes Larocque (2015)
[Blink and masseter inhibitory reflexes in Parkinson's disease].
J. Stamenović (2010)
Surface EMG and acceleration signals in Parkinson’s disease: feature extraction and cluster analysis
S. Rissanen (2008)
Development of wearable inertial sensors for measurement of hand arm tremors
Ping Yi Chan (2013)
Hybrid Convolutional Recurrent Neural Networks Outperform CNN and RNN in Task-state EEG Detection for Parkinson's Disease
Xinjie Shi (2019)
The impact of the E46K mutation on the properties of alpha-synuclein in its monomeric and oligomeric states.
R. Fredenburg (2007)
Analysis of Dynamic Voluntary Muscle Contractions in Parkinson's Disease
S. Rissanen (2009)
Analysis of surface EMG signal morphology in Parkinson's disease.
S. Rissanen (2007)See more