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Insulin Signaling, Glucose Metabolism Oxidative Stress, And Aging
Published 2003 · Medicine
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Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the experiment evident of insulin signaling, glucose metabolism oxidative stress, and aging. Aging can be sensitively measured by computing the age-adjusted incidence of chronic diseases (ARD), such as atherosclerosis, type-2 diabetes, and essential hypertension that most commonly terminate meaningful life by disability or death. In those who are affected by any of such conditions, one important cause of disability and death is a chronic nephropathy resembling the aging-related nephropathy of rodents. Such nephropathy is reaching epidemic proportions in affluent societies, causing over 2/3 of new cases of end stage renal failure. Both hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia promote oxidative stress in vitro and there is evidence that insulin resistant individuals, whether or not they have diabetes, develop ARD at an earlier age. Insulin signaling is, for a given level of carbohydrate (CHO) intake and insulin resistance, enhanced by iron sufficiency and increasing body-iron stores. Trials of iron restriction or venesection leading to near iron deficiency levels markedly improved high CHO tolerance, insulin resistance, metabolic markers of chronic disease progression and prolonged life span in both drosophila and humans with diabetic nephropathy.
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