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Iodinated Blood Pool Contrast Media For Preclinical X-ray Imaging Applications--a Review.

F. Hallouard, N. Anton, P. Choquet, A. Constantinesco, T. Vandamme
Published 2010 · Materials Science, Medicine

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The in vivo X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a very powerful and non-invasive tool used to establish high-resolution images with isotropic voxels in typical scan times ranging from minutes to tenths of minutes. This preclinical imaging technology is primarily adapted to visualize bones. X-ray imaging of soft tissues is made possible by using opaque compounds, providing contrast through tissue vascularization. Thus, using control agents with a long-lasting time in the blood, active or passive targeting of soft tissue is made possible in small animals. In this respect, the use of hydrophilic iodinated X-ray contrast media remains limited due to their rapid blood clearance, albeit at a slightly slower pace in humans as compared with rodents. The development of an iodinated contrast medium with increased vascular residence time is thus necessary. This is precisely the scope of the present paper, which will review and compare in detail the different vectors used as long-circulating iodinated contrast agents for micro-CT, i.e. liposomes, nanoemulsions, micelles, dendrimers and other polymeric particles. The discussion is focused, for each of these nanoparticulate systems, on their method of formulation and production, their stability properties, encapsulation properties, release properties, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology. The different aspects relative to the adaptation of these properties and physico-chemical characteristics for blood pool contrast agents aimed at angiographic micro-CT applications are also discussed. The aim of this review is to propose an overview into the formulation and properties of iodinated micro-CT contrast agents for preclinical applications.
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