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Multiobjective Design Optimisation Of Coronary Stents.

Sanjay Pant, Georges Limbert, Nick Curzen, Neil W. Bressloff
Published 2011 · Medicine, Materials Science
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We present here a multi-objective and multi-disciplinary coronary stent design optimization paradigm. Coronary stents are tubular, often mesh-like, structures which are deployed in diseased (stenosed) artery segments to provide a scaffolding feature that compresses atheromatus plaque, hence restoring luminal area and maintaining vessel patency. A three variable geometry parameterisation of a CYPHER (Cordis Corporation, Johnson & Johnson co.) type stent is proposed to explore the functionality of a sequence of circumferential rings connected by 'n' shaped links. The performance of each design is measured by six figures of merit (objectives/metrics) representing (i) acute recoil, (ii) tissue stresses, (iii) haemodynamic disturbance, (iv) drug delivery, (v) uniformity of drug distribution, and (vi) flexibility. These metrics are obtained from computational simulations of (i) structural deformation through balloon inflated expansion of a stent into contact with a stenosed vessel, (ii) pulsatile flow over the deformed stent embedded in the vessel wall, (iii) steady-state drug distribution into the tissue, and (iv) flexibility of a stent in response to an applied moment. Design improvement is obtained by a multi-objective surrogate modelling approach using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) to search for an optimal family of designs. A number of trade-offs between the different objectives are identified. In particular a conflict between pairs of the following objectives are shown -- (a) volume average stress vs. recoil, (b) volume average drug vs. volume average stress, (c) flexibility vs. volume average stress, (d) flexibility vs. haemodynamic disturbance, (e) volume average drug vs. haemodynamic disturbance, and (f) uniformity of drug vs. volume average stress. Different paradigms to choose the optimal designs from the obtained Pareto fronts are presented and under each such paradigm, the optimal designs and there relative positions with respect to a representative CYPHER stent are shown. The methodology and the results of this work could potentially be useful in further optimisation studies and development of a family of stents with increased resistance to in-stent restenosis and thrombosis.
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