Synergistic Antibacterial Actions Of Graphene Oxide And Antibiotics Towards Bacteria And The Toxicological Effects Of Graphene Oxide On Human Epidermal Keratinocytes.
Thiruchelvi Pulingam, Kwai Lin Thong, Jimmy Nelson Appaturi, Nurul Izza Mohd Nordin, Ignatius Julian Dinshaw, Chin Wei Lai, Dr Bey Fen Leo
Published 2019 · Medicine, Chemistry
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Graphene oxide (GO) has displayed antibacterial activity that has been investigated in the past, however, information on synergistic activity of GO with conventional antibiotics is still lacking. The objectives of the study were to determine the combinatorial actions of GO and antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the toxicological effects of GO towards human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). Interactions at molecular level between GO and antibiotics were analyzed using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Changes in the antibacterial activity of antibiotics towards bacteria through the addition of GO was investigated. Toxicity of GO towards HaCaT cells were examined as skin cells play a role as the first line of defense of the human body. The ATR-FTIR characterizations of GO and antibiotics showed adsorption of tested antibiotics onto GO. The combinatorial antibacterial activity of GO and antibiotics were found to increase when compared to GO or antibiotic alone. This was attributed to the ability of GO to disrupt bacterial membrane to allow for better adsorption of antibiotics. Cytotoxicity of GO was found to be dose-dependent towards HaCaT cell line, it is found to impose negligible toxic effects against the skin cells at concentration below 100 μg/mL.
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