Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Referencing for people who value simplicity, privacy, and speed.
Get Citationsy
← Back to Search

The Use Of The Rat As A Model For Studying Peripheral Nerve Regeneration And Sprouting After Complete And Partial Nerve Injuries

T. Gordon, G. Borschel
Published 2017 · Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy Visualize in Litmaps
Share
Reduce the time it takes to create your bibliography by a factor of 10 by using the world’s favourite reference manager
Time to take this seriously.
Get Citationsy
&NA; Rat models of complete and partial injuries are the most frequently used models for analysis of the cellular and molecular processes of nerve regeneration and axon sprouting. Studies of nerve regeneration and axon sprouting after complete and partial nerve injuries, respectively, are reviewed. Special consideration is made of the peripheral nerves chosen for the studies and the outcome measures that were utilized in the studies. The studies have made important contributions to our knowledge of the degenerative and regenerative processes that occur after the peripheral nerve injuries, why functional recovery is frequently compromised after delayed surgery, the positive effects of neurotrophic factors on nerve regeneration after delayed nerve repair or after insertion of autografts between transected nerve, and how axon regeneration may be accelerated by brief periods of electrical stimulation and/or by administration of androgens.
This paper references
10.1016/j.hcl.2015.12.001
Nerve Regeneration: Understanding Biology and Its Influence on Return of Function After Nerve Transfers.
T. Gordon (2016)
10.1146/ANNUREV.NE.04.030181.000313
Motor nerve sprouting.
M. C. Brown (1981)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.04.031
Electrical stimulation and testosterone differentially enhance expression of regeneration-associated genes
N. Sharma (2010)
10.1083/JCB.77.2.371
Autoradiographic localization of acetylcholine receptors in the Schwann cell membrane of the squid nerve fiber
F. Rawlins (1978)
Maturation of regenerating nerve fibres with various peripheral connexions.
J. Aitken (1947)
10.1016/0014-4886(87)90090-2
Selective reinnervation of distal motor stumps by peripheral motor axons
T. Brushart (1987)
10.1097/PRS.0000000000000893
Enhancement of Facial Nerve Motoneuron Regeneration through Cross-Face Nerve Grafts by Adding End-to-Side Sensory Axons
E. Placheta (2015)
10.1016/j.otohns.2008.04.030
Electrical stimulation facilitates rat facial nerve recovery from a crush injury
D. Lal (2008)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2012.11.023
Differential effects of activity dependent treatments on axonal regeneration and neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury
S. Cobianchi (2013)
10.1227/01.NEU.0000255412.63184.CC
PROLONGED TARGET DEPRIVATION REDUCES THE CAPACITY OF INJURED MOTONEURONS TO REGENERATE
M. Furey (2007)
Three types of transmitter release from embryonic neurons.
M. Poo (1985)
nerve injury in rats
J. G. Boyd (2001)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2005.02.007
Electrical stimulation restores the specificity of sensory axon regeneration
T. Brushart (2005)
10.1098/rstl.1850.0021
Experiments on the Section of the Glosso-Pharyngeal and Hypoglossal Nerves of the Frog, and Observations of the Alterations Produced Thereby in the Structure of Their Primitive Fibres
A. Waller (1850)
10.1152/jn.00946.2012
Effects of treadmill training on functional recovery following peripheral nerve injury in rats.
Tiffany Boeltz (2013)
10.1007/BF02740621
The cellular and molecular basis of peripheral nerve regeneration
S. Y. Fu (2007)
Distribution of motor nerve sproutings in the mouse gastrocnemius muscle after partial denervation
鳥越 甲順 (1985)
10.1007/BF01148493
The role of non-resident cells in Wallerian degeneration
W. Beuche (1984)
10.1038/ICB.1950.39
Local re-innervation in partially denervated muscle; a histophysiological study.
H. Hoffman (1950)
10.1038/35097557
Induction, assembly, maturation and maintenance of a postsynaptic apparatus
J. Sanes (2001)
10.4103/1673-5374.150714
Electrical stimulation does not enhance nerve regeneration if delayed after sciatic nerve injury: the role of fibrosis
N. Han (2015)
10.1038/35097557
An adaptive coding model of neural function in prefrontal cortex
J. S. Duncan (2001)
10.3389/fnmol.2011.00046
A Gene Network Perspective on Axonal Regeneration
R. E. van Kesteren (2011)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.19-10-03836.1999
Muscarinic Control of Cytoskeleton in Perisynaptic Glia
J. Georgiou (1999)
10.1089/neu.2012.2797
Acute stimulation of transplanted neurons improves motoneuron survival, axon growth, and muscle reinnervation.
R. Grumbles (2013)
10.1152/jn.00806.2013
Electrical stimulation of transplanted motoneurons improves motor unit formation.
Y. Liu (2014)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.15-05-03886.1995
Contributing factors to poor functional recovery after delayed nerve repair: prolonged denervation
S. Y. Fu (1995)
10.1007/3-540-29931-9
Axonal branching and recovery of coordinated muscle activity after transection of the facial nerve in adult rats.
D. Angelov (2005)
Neurotrophic factors and their receptors in axonal regener
J. G. Boyd (2003)
The influence of GDNF
O. C. Aszmann (2004)
10.1002/jnr.22426
Short‐term low‐frequency electrical stimulation enhanced remyelination of injured peripheral nerves by inducing the promyelination effect of brain‐derived neurotrophic factor on Schwann cell polarization
Lidan Wan (2010)
10.1371/journal.pone.0071076
Lentiviral Vector-Mediated Gradients of GDNF in the Injured Peripheral Nerve: Effects on Nerve Coil Formation, Schwann Cell Maturation and Myelination
R. Eggers (2013)
10.1016/b978-0-443-06711-2.x5001-x
Nerve Injury and Repair
G. Lundborg (1988)
10.1002/mus.21220
Processed allografts and type I collagen conduits for repair of peripheral nerve gaps
E. L. Whitlock (2009)
10.1002/mus.23885
Schwann cells seeded in acellular nerve grafts improve functional recovery
N. J. Jesuraj (2014)
10.1098/RSTB.1996.0038
Neurotrophins and nerve injury in the adult.
V. Verge (1996)
10.1016/j.otohns.2008.02.006
Accelerating functional recovery after rat facial nerve injury: Effects of gonadal steroids and electrical stimulation
Laura T Hetzler (2008)
10.1016/j.aanat.2011.02.013
Enhancing recovery from peripheral nerve injury using treadmill training.
A. English (2011)
10.1006/exnr.2000.7528
Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Is Required for Motoneuron Sprouting
S. Siegel (2000)
10.1155/2009/408794
Schwann Cells Overexpressing FGF-2 Alone or Combined with Manual Stimulation Do Not Promote Functional Recovery after Facial Nerve Injury
K. Haastert (2009)
10.1113/jphysiol.1980.sp013410
Nodal and terminal sprouting from motor nerves in fast and slow muscles of the mouse.
M. C. Brown (1980)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2007.11.007
Electrical stimulation of intact peripheral sensory axons in rats promotes outgrowth of their central projections
E. Udina (2008)
Local reinnervation in partially denervated muscles: a histophysiological study
H. Hoffman (1950)
2011.Wallerian degeneration: gaining perspective on inflammatory events after peripheral nerve injury
A. D. Gaudet (2011)
10.1016/0006-8993(81)91101-X
The absence of nodal sprouts from partially denervated nerve trunks
J. Slack (1981)
10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.03877.x
Factors limiting motor recovery after facial nerve transection in the rat: combined structural and functional analyses
O. Guntinas-Lichius (2005)
10.1111/ejn.13089
Clinical and neurobiological advances in promoting regeneration of the ventral root avulsion lesion
R. Eggers (2016)
10.1113/jphysiol.1981.sp013870
Role of degenerating axon pathways in regeneration of mouse soleus motor axons.
M. C. Brown (1981)
10.1152/JN.1996.75.1.268
Self-reinnervated cat medial gastrocnemius muscles. I. comparisons of the capacity for regenerating nerves to form enlarged motor units after extensive peripheral nerve injuries.
V. Rafuse (1996)
10.1007/BF01189810
Terminal sprouting in partially denervated muscle of the mouse: a scanning electron microscopic study
K. Torigoe (1988)
Androgen induced acceleration of functional recovery after rat sciatic nerve injury.
T. J. Brown (1999)
10.1111/ejn.13070
Regeneration‐associated genes decline in chronically injured rat sciatic motoneurons
T. Gordon (2015)
10.1016/S0074-7742(08)60183-X
The Axon Reaction: A Review of the Principal Features of Perikaryal Responses to Axon Injury
Lieberman Ar (1971)
Maturation of regenerating nerve fibres with various peripheral connexions.
J. Aitken (1947)
10.1002/bit.24800
Functional motor recovery is improved due to local placement of GDNF microspheres after delayed nerve repair
M. Wood (2013)
10.1002/JEMT.10108
Myelin phagocytosis by macrophages and nonmacrophages during Wallerian degeneration
K. Hirata (2002)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.07-04-01215.1987
Visualization of neuromuscular junctions over periods of several months in living mice
J. Lichtman (1987)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.04.011
Limited regeneration in long acellular nerve allografts is associated with increased Schwann cell senescence
Maryam Saheb-Al-Zamani (2013)
mouse soleus motor axons
M. C. Brown (1977)
10.1046/J.1460-9568.2000.01341.X
Electrical stimulation accelerates and increases expression of BDNF and trkB mRNA in regenerating rat femoral motoneurons.
A. Al-Majed (2000)
10.1016/0014-4886(92)90229-J
Recovery of sensory function in skin deprived of its innervation by lesion of the peripheral nerve
J. Diamond (1992)
10.1006/exnr.2002.7928
Chronic Schwann Cell Denervation and the Presence of a Sensory Nerve Reduce Motor Axonal Regeneration
O. Sulaiman (2002)
10.1086/394990
The Problem of Central Nervous Reorganization After Nerve Regeneration and Muscle Transposition
R. Sperry (1945)
10.1385/MN:27:3:277
Neurotrophic factors and their receptors in axonal regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury
J. G. Boyd (2007)
10.1113/jphysiol.2010.190389
Sprouting capacity of lumbar motoneurons in normal and hemisected spinal cords of the rat
T. Gordon (2010)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.09.006
Improving peripheral nerve regeneration: From molecular mechanisms to potential therapeutic targets
K. Chan (2014)
10.1038/ICB.1951.25
Fate of interrupted nerve-fibres regenerating into partially denervated muscles.
H. Hoffman (1951)
10.1111/j.1469-7793.1998.909bm.x
Incomplete rematching of nerve and muscle properties in motor units after extensive nerve injuries in cat hindlimb muscle
V. Rafuse (1998)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2008.01.020
Immediate electrical stimulation enhances regeneration and reinnervation and modulates spinal plastic changes after sciatic nerve injury and repair
M. Vivó (2008)
10.1113/jphysiol.1974.sp010450
Two factors responsible for the development of denervation hypersensitivity
R. Jones (1974)
10.1016/B978-0-12-802653-3.00110-X
The Biology, Limits, and Promotion of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Rats and Humans
T. Gordon (2015)
by preventing nociceptor collateral sprouting and disruption of chloride cotransporters homeostasis after peripheral nerve injury
L. Lubinska (1977)
10.1113/jphysiol.1986.sp016021
Reinnervation of the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus muscles in the rat by their common nerve.
M. J. Gillespie (1986)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.21-02-00654.2001
Increased Neuromuscular Activity Reduces Sprouting in Partially Denervated Muscles
S. L. Tam (2001)
10.1007/s00221-011-2697-9
Non-invasive stimulation of the vibrissal pad improves recovery of whisking function after simultaneous lesion of the facial and infraorbital nerves in rats
H. Bendella (2011)
10.1002/ANA.410280405
Motor unit numbers and contractile properties after spinal cord injury
J. Yang (1990)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.10.022
Reduced expression of regeneration associated genes in chronically axotomized facial motoneurons
T. Gordon (2015)
10.1152/JN.1982.48.5.1175
Reorganization of motor-unit properties in reinnervated muscles of the cat.
T. Gordon (1982)
10.1016/0163-7258(94)90007-8
Role of insulin-like growth factors in peripheral nerve regeneration.
D. Ishii (1994)
10.1111/ejn.12370
Electrical stimulation accelerates nerve regeneration and functional recovery in delayed peripheral nerve injury in rats
J. Huang (2013)
10.1006/exnr.2001.7826
A Decline in Glial Cell-Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression Is Associated with Impaired Regeneration after Long-Term Schwann Cell Denervation
A. Höke (2002)
331–347 proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix promotes peripheral nerve regeneration
G.H.T. Gordon (2017)
10.1046/j.1460-9568.2002.01891.x
A dose‐dependent facilitation and inhibition of peripheral nerve regeneration by brain‐derived neurotrophic factor
J. G. Boyd (2002)
10.1016/0006-8993(77)90841-1
Early course of wallerian degeneration in myelinated fibres of the rat phrenic nerve
L. Lubińska (1977)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-08-03052.2002
The Cytokine Network of Wallerian Degeneration: Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin-1α, and Interleukin-1β
S. Shamash (2002)
10.1097/01.NT.0000515057.63475.A8
Non-Invasive Stimulation Found Effective for Migraine
Olga Rukovets (2017)
10.1007/978-1-4684-2637-3_10
Effects of cholinergic compounds on the axon-Schwann cell relationship in the squid nerve fiber.
J. Villegas (1975)
10.1002/MUS.880141113
Changes in nerve fiber numbers distal to a nerve repair in the rat sciatic nerve model
S. Mackinnon (1991)
10.1152/JN.1992.68.4.1261
Proportional enlargement of motor units after partial denervation of cat triceps surae muscles.
V. Rafuse (1992)
10.1016/0022-510X(89)90135-4
Early terminal and nodal sprouting of motor axons after botulinum toxin
R. Pamphlett (1989)
10.1179/016164104225013806
Adaptive and maladaptive motor axonal sprouting in aging and motoneuron disease
T. Gordon (2004)
10.1111/j.1469-7793.1997.337be.x
Muscarinic Ca2+ responses resistant to muscarinic antagonists at perisynaptic schwann cells of the frog neuromuscular junction
R. Robitaille (1997)
10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000268
Early increasing-intensity treadmill exercise reduces neuropathic pain by preventing nociceptor collateral sprouting and disruption of chloride cotransporters homeostasis after peripheral nerve injury
Victor Lopez-Alvarez (2015)
10.1016/S0014-4886(03)00183-3
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor sustain the axonal regeneration of chronically axotomized motoneurons in vivo
J. G. Boyd (2003)
ulate motor axonal regeneration
J. G. Boyd (2002)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2484-15.2015
Live Imaging of Calcium Dynamics during Axon Degeneration Reveals Two Functionally Distinct Phases of Calcium Influx
M. Vargas (2015)
10.1016/j.actbio.2015.10.001
A glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor delivery system enhances nerve regeneration across acellular nerve allografts.
Kasra Tajdaran (2016)
10.1016/S1567-424X(08)00022-6
Development and use of the incremental twitch subtraction MUNE method in mice.
J. Hegedus (2009)
nerve in adult rats
E. Asensio-Pinilla (2009)
IN RAT SCIATIC NERVE
C. Tanaka (1973)
medical engineering strategies for peripheral nerve repair : surgical applications , state of the art , and future challenges
T. Gordon (2011)
Thirty minutes of low intensity electrical stimulation promotes nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model.
Mohammad S. Alrashdan (2010)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.01.012
Neurotrophic factor expression in denervated motor and sensory Schwann cells: Relevance to specificity of peripheral nerve regeneration
T. Gordon (2014)
10.1089/neu.2007.0466
Androgen regulates neuritin mRNA levels in an in vivo model of steroid-enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration.
K. Fargo (2008)
10.3233/RNN-2009-0489
Effects of electrical stimulation and gonadal steroids on rat facial nerve regenerative properties.
N. Sharma (2009)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3105-05.2005
Peripheral Pathways Regulate Motoneuron Collateral Dynamics
R. Redett (2005)
10.1083/JCB.110.4.1307
Nerve sprouting in innervated adult skeletal muscle induced by exposure to elevated levels of insulin-like growth factors
P. Caroni (1990)
10.1097/PRS.0b013e31820439f0
Comparative Study of Single-, Double-, and Triple-Nerve Transfer to a Common Target: Experimental Study of Rat Brachial Plexus
A. Rodríguez (2011)
Borschel / Experimental Neurology
G.H.T. Gordon (2014)
10.1002/glia.22712
Schwann cells transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding Fgf‐2 promote motor neuron regeneration following sciatic nerve injury
Ilary Allodi (2014)
10.1007/978-94-010-9541-9
Nerve-Muscle Interaction
G. Vrbóva (1978)
10.2217/rme.12.105
Fibrin gels containing GDNF microspheres increase axonal regeneration after delayed peripheral nerve repair.
M. Wood (2013)
Dependance of peripheral nerves on their target organs
T. Gordon (1983)
10.1001/jamafacial.2014.617
Macroscopic in vivo imaging of facial nerve regeneration in Thy1-GFP rats.
E. Placheta (2015)
10.1139/Y04-081
The resilience of the size principle in the organization of motor unit properties in normal and reinnervated adult skeletal muscles.
T. Gordon (2004)
10.1113/jphysiol.1982.sp014074
Time course and extent of recovery in reinnervated motor units of cat triceps surae muscles
T. Gordon (1982)
10.1016/0896-6273(95)90247-3
Nerve sprouting in muscle is induced and guided by processes extended by schwann cells
Young-Jin Son (1995)
10.1002/MUS.880060402
Evidence for a motor nerve growth factor
J. Slack (1983)
10.3233/RNN-2009-0479
Chondroitinase ABC and acute electrical stimulation are beneficial for muscle reinnervation after sciatic nerve transection in rats.
E. Beaumont (2009)
10.1006/exnr.2002.7922
Regeneration of Axons after Nerve Transection Repair Is Enhanced by Degradation of Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan
J. Zuo (2002)
Electrical stimulation restores
T. M. Brushart (2005)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.10-05-01522.1990
Differential effects of age on neuromuscular transmission in partially denervated mouse muscle
J. Jacob (1990)
10.1097/01.PRS.0000020990.82332.43
Simultaneous GDNF and BDNF application leads to increased motoneuron survival and improved functional outcome in an experimental model for obstetric brachial plexus lesions.
O. Aszmann (2002)
10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.05.051
RETRACTED: Electrical stimulation enhanced remyelination of injured sciatic nerves by increasing neurotrophins
L. Wan (2010)
10.1152/physiol.00028.2014
Exercise, neurotrophins, and axon regeneration in the PNS.
A. English (2014)
10.1152/JN.1992.67.5.1385
Innervation ratio is an important determinant of force in normal and reinnervated rat tibialis anterior muscles.
J. E. Tötösy de Zepetnek (1992)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.08.026
Rolipram-induced elevation of cAMP or chondroitinase ABC breakdown of inhibitory proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix promotes peripheral nerve regeneration
E. Udina (2010)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2004.02.004
Blocking of up-regulated ICAM-1 does not prevent macrophage infiltration during Wallerian degeneration of peripheral nerve
A. Avellino (2004)
10.1016/0896-6273(92)90128-Z
Transmitter release increases intracellular calcium in perisynaptic schwann cells in situ
B. Jahromi (1992)
10.1016/0306-4522(82)90239-1
Source of the stimulus for nerve terminal sprouting in partially denervated muscle
S. Pockett (1982)
10.1177/1545968310376758
Timing of Applying Electrical Stimulation Is an Important Factor Deciding the Success Rate and Maturity of Regenerating Rat Sciatic Nerves
Chia-Chou Yeh (2010)
10.1006/exnr.1995.1095
Differential Macrophage Responses in the Peripheral and Central Nervous System during Wallerian Degeneration of Axons
A. Avellino (1995)
10.1002/NEU.10276
Neuromuscular activity impairs axonal sprouting in partially denervated muscles by inhibiting bridge formation of perisynaptic Schwann cells.
S. L. Tam (2003)
10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6090557
Determining the effects of electrical stimulation on functional recovery of denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle using motor unit number estimation
Michael P. Willand (2011)
10.1016/j.aanat.2011.04.008
Outcome measures of peripheral nerve regeneration.
M. Wood (2011)
10.1152/JN.1996.75.1.282
Self-reinnervated cat medial gastrocnemius muscles. II. analysis of the mechanisms and significance of fiber type grouping in reinnervated muscles.
V. Rafuse (1996)
10.1177/1545968310368686
Electrical stimulation accelerates motor functional recovery in the rat model of 15-mm sciatic nerve gap bridged by scaffolds with longitudinally oriented microchannels.
J. Huang (2010)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1620-06.2006
Schwann Cells Express Motor and Sensory Phenotypes That Regulate Axon Regeneration
A. Höke (2006)
10.1136/jnnp.50.3.259
Patterns of reinnervation and motor unit recruitment in human hand muscles after complete ulnar and median nerve section and resuture.
C. Thomas (1987)
10.1002/NEU.10013
The neurotrophin receptors, trkB and p75, differentially regulate motor axonal regeneration.
J. G. Boyd (2001)
10.1083/JCB.125.4.893
Role of muscle insulin-like growth factors in nerve sprouting: suppression of terminal sprouting in paralyzed muscle by IGF-binding protein 4
P. Caroni (1994)
10.1123/MCJ.13.4.412
Brief electrical stimulation accelerates axon regeneration in the peripheral nervous system and promotes sensory axon regeneration in the central nervous system.
T. Gordon (2009)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.10-05-01530.1990
Age differences in morphology of reinnervation of partially denervated mouse muscle.
JM Jacob (1990)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.09.020
Brief post-surgical electrical stimulation accelerates axon regeneration and muscle reinnervation without affecting the functional measures in carpal tunnel syndrome patients
T. Gordon (2010)
10.1101/cshperspect.a020487
Schwann Cells: Development and Role in Nerve Repair.
K. Jessen (2015)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2005.12.018
BDNF/TrkB signaling regulates HNK-1 carbohydrate expression in regenerating motor nerves and promotes functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair
K. Eberhardt (2006)
10.1016/S0361-9230(00)00411-1
Evaluation of muscle re-innervation employing pre- and post-axotomy injections of fluorescent retrograde tracers
A. Popratiloff (2001)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.08-09-03181.1988
Changes in cytoskeletal proteins in the rat facial nucleus following axotomy
W. Tetzlaff (1988)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-07-02602.2000
Brief Electrical Stimulation Promotes the Speed and Accuracy of Motor Axonal Regeneration
A. Al-Majed (2000)
10.1016/0006-8993(82)90258-X
Importance of pathway formation for nodal sprout production in partly denervated muscles
M. C. Brown (1982)
10.1007/BF01206897
Terminal Schwann cells elaborate extensive processes following denervation of the motor endplate
M. Reynolds (1992)
10.4449/AIB.V116I1.2937
Sympathetic nerve fibers ingrowth in the central nervous system of neonatal rodent upon intracerebral NGF injections.
M. G. Menesini Chen (1978)
10.1089/neu.2010.1637
Electrical stimulation accelerates axonal and functional peripheral nerve regeneration across long gaps.
K. Haastert-Talini (2011)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.05.034
Electrical stimulation combined with exercise increase axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury
E. Asensio-Pinilla (2009)
Experiments on the section of the glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves of the frog , and observations of the alterations produced thereby in the structure of their primitive fi bres
A. Waller (1850)
10.1186/1742-2094-8-110
Wallerian degeneration: gaining perspective on inflammatory events after peripheral nerve injury
A. Gaudet (2011)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-15-06631.2002
Electrical Stimulation Promotes Motoneuron Regeneration without Increasing Its Speed or Conditioning the Neuron
T. Brushart (2002)
10.1177/1545968314562117
Daily Electrical Muscle Stimulation Enhances Functional Recovery Following Nerve Transection and Repair in Rats
Michael P. Willand (2015)
10.3171/2011.10.JNS11612
Accelerated axon outgrowth, guidance, and target reinnervation across nerve transection gaps following a brief electrical stimulation paradigm.
B. Singh (2012)
Importance of pathway formation
M. C. Brown (1982)
10.1097/GOX.0000000000000198
The Impact of Different Degrees of Injured C7 Nerve Transfer: An Experimental Rat Study
C. Tzou (2014)
10.1186/1742-2094-8-109
Wallerian degeneration: the innate-immune response to traumatic nerve injury
S. Rotshenker (2011)
10.1152/JN.1987.57.4.921
Motor units and histochemistry in rat lateral gastrocnemius and soleus muscles: evidence for dissociation of physiological and histochemical properties after reinnervation.
M. J. Gillespie (1987)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2007.01.040
Electrical stimulation promotes sensory neuron regeneration and growth-associated gene expression
N. Geremia (2007)
10.1038/SCIENTIFICAMERICAN0679-68
The nerve-growth factor.
R. Levi-Montalcini (1979)
10.1002/dneu.20960
Sex differences in the effectiveness of treadmill training in enhancing axon regeneration in injured peripheral nerves
Kylene Wood (2012)
10.1023/B:CEMN.0000022770.66463.f7
Electrical Stimulation Accelerates and Enhances Expression of Regeneration-Associated Genes in Regenerating Rat Femoral Motoneurons
A. Al-Majed (2004)
Electrical stimulation accelerates and enhances
A. A. Al-Majed (2004)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6156-10.2011
The Basis for Diminished Functional Recovery after Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair
T. Gordon (2011)
10.1002/JNR.490360402
Expression of mRNA for neurotrophic factors and their receptors in the rat dorsal root ganglion and sciatic nerve following nerve injury
M. E. Sebert (1993)
10.1002/mus.23295
GDNF released from microspheres enhances nerve regeneration after delayed repair
M. Wood (2012)
10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.BMB.A070230
THE LOCAL EXTENSION OF NERVE FIBRES INTO DENERVATED AREAS OF SKIN.
G. Weddell (1941)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.15-05-03876.1995
Contributing factors to poor functional recovery after delayed nerve repair: prolonged axotomy
S. Y. Fu (1995)
10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.03.032
Poor functional recovery and muscle polyinnervation after facial nerve injury in fibroblast growth factor-2−/− mice can be improved by manual stimulation of denervated vibrissal muscles
M. Seitz (2011)
10.1016/0304-3940(80)90051-8
Transganglionic demonstration of central sensory projections from skin and muscle with HRP-lectin conjugates
T. Brushart (1980)
10.1002/lary.20627
Comparison of extratemporal and intratemporal facial nerve injury models
N. Sharma (2009)
The cytokine network of Wallerian degeneration: tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1alpha, and interleukin-1beta.
S. Shamash (2002)
10.1152/JN.00904.2006
Method for counting motor units in mice and validation using a mathematical model.
Lora A. Major (2007)
10.1016/j.aanat.2011.02.012
Effects of activity-dependent strategies on regeneration and plasticity after peripheral nerve injuries.
E. Udina (2011)
10.1002/mus.23726
Electrical muscle stimulation after immediate nerve repair reduces muscle atrophy without affecting reinnervation
Michael P. Willand (2013)
10.1023/B:NEUR.0000020635.41233.0F
Mechanisms controlling axonal sprouting at the neuromuscular junction
S. L. Tam (2003)
10.1097/PRS.0000000000000599
Sensory Nerve Cross-Anastomosis and Electrical Muscle Stimulation Synergistically Enhance Functional Recovery of Chronically Denervated Muscle
Michael P. Willand (2014)
10.1016/0006-8993(83)90818-1
Sprouting of mammalian motorneurones at nodes of ranvier: the role of the denervated motor endplate
R. Keynes (1983)
10.1177/1545968308316387
Manual Stimulation of the Suprahyoid-Sublingual Region Diminishes Polynnervation of the Motor Endplates and Improves Recovery of Function After Hypoglossal Nerve Injury in Rats
Emilia Evgenieva (2008)
10.1113/jphysiol.1978.sp012307
Sprouting and regression of neuromuscular synapses in partially denervated mammalian muscles.
M. C. Brown (1978)
10.1007/BF00699240
Wallerian degeneration of peripheral nerve
J. H. Hofteig (2004)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.17-14-05288.1997
Nerve Growth Factor Accelerates Seizure Development, Enhances Mossy Fiber Sprouting, and Attenuates Seizure-Induced Decreases in Neuronal Density in the Kindling Model of Epilepsy
B. Adams (1997)
10.1002/ana.24397
Electrical stimulation enhances sensory recovery: A randomized controlled trial
J. Wong (2015)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.05.007
Schwann cell phenotype is regulated by axon modality and central–peripheral location, and persists in vitro
T. Brushart (2013)
10.1016/0306-4522(91)90177-P
Electrical stimulation of nerve regeneration in the rat: The early effects evaluated by a vibrating probe and electron microscopy
J. Kerns (1991)
10.1016/0896-6273(94)90284-4
Synaptic regulation of glial protein expression in vivo
John Georgiou (1994)
10.1002/glia.20778
Biology and pathology of nonmyelinating Schwann cells
J. Griffin (2008)
10.1093/brain/awn039
Intrinsic neuronal properties control selective targeting of regenerating motoneurons.
C. K. Franz (2008)
Variations in the amount and type of alpha-motoneurone sprouting following partial denervation of different mouse muscles [proceedings].
M. C. Brown (1978)
10.1002/(SICI)1098-1136(199706)20:2<87::AID-GLIA1>3.0.CO;2-1
The expression of the low affinity nerve growth factor receptor in long‐term denervated Schwann cells
S. You (1997)
10.1016/j.neuron.2013.08.034
Regulation of Axon Degeneration after Injury and in Development by the Endogenous Calpain Inhibitor Calpastatin
Jiaqi Yang (2013)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0697-14.2014
Presynaptic NCAM Is Required for Motor Neurons to Functionally Expand Their Peripheral Field of Innervation in Partially Denervated Muscles
P. Chipman (2014)
10.1136/jnnp.33.3.319
Mapping of motor units in experimentally reinnervated rat muscle
E. Kugelberg (1970)
10.1016/j.yhbeh.2008.01.014
Androgen regulation of axon growth and neurite extension in motoneurons
K. Fargo (2008)
10.1002/1098-1136(200012)32:3<234::AID-GLIA40>3.0.CO;2-3
Effects of short‐ and long‐term Schwann cell denervation on peripheral nerve regeneration, myelination, and size
O. Sulaiman (2000)
Axonal sprouting in health and disease
S. L. Tam (2011)
10.1007/s00701-011-1054-x
Effects of combining electrical stimulation with BDNF gene transfer on the regeneration of crushed rat sciatic nerve
Mohammad S. Alrashdan (2011)
10.1179/016164104225013789
The influence of GDNF on the timecourse and extent of motoneuron loss in the cervical spinal cord after brachial plexus injury in the neonate
O. Aszmann (2004)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and brain-derived
J. G. 613–626. Boyd (2003)
10.1615/CRITREVBIOMEDENG.V39.I2.20
Biomedical engineering strategies for peripheral nerve repair: surgical applications, state of the art, and future challenges.
B. Pfister (2011)
10.1002/jbm.a.35572
An engineered biocompatible drug delivery system enhances nerve regeneration after delayed repair.
Kasra Tajdaran (2016)
10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.06847.x
Chemical communication between regenerating motor axons and Schwann cells in the growth pathway
G. Vrbóva (2009)
10.1002/glia.10022
Transforming growth factor‐β and forskolin attenuate the adverse effects of long‐term Schwann cell denervation on peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo
O. Sulaiman (2002)
10.1006/exnr.1993.1079
Recovery from Facial Paralysis Following Crush Injury of the Facial Nerve in Hamsters: Differential Effects of Gender and Androgen Exposure
K. Jones (1993)
10.1006/exnr.2002.7878
FK506 Increases Peripheral Nerve Regeneration after Chronic Axotomy but Not after Chronic Schwann Cell Denervation
O. Sulaiman (2002)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2005.04.007
Axon regeneration in peripheral nerves is enhanced by proteoglycan degradation
M. Groves (2005)
10.1016/S0074-7742(09)87024-4
Chapter 24: Electrical stimulation for improving nerve regeneration: where do we stand?
T. Gordon (2009)
Suppression of motor nerve terminal sprouting in partially denervated mouse muscles [proceedings].
M. C. Brown (1977)
10.1016/0304-3940(85)90203-4
Acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration after crush injury in rat
S. Pockett (1985)
10.1097/NEN.0b013e31826cf69a
Motoneuron Replacement for Reinnervation of Skeletal Muscle in Adult Rats
R. Grumbles (2012)
10.1126/SCIENCE.6243417
Postsynaptic transmission block can cause terminal sprouting of a motor nerve.
R. L. Holland (1980)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.03.022
Brief electrical stimulation improves nerve regeneration after delayed repair in Sprague Dawley rats
K. Elzinga (2015)
10.1016/0361-9230(93)90281-F
Recovery potential of muscle after partial denervation: A comparison between rats and humans
T. Gordon (1993)
10.1682/JRRD.2011.03.0033
Single session of brief electrical stimulation immediately following crush injury enhances functional recovery of rat facial nerve.
Eileen M Foecking (2012)
10.1016/s0074-7742(08)60183-x
The axon reaction: a review of the principal features of perikaryal responses to axon injury.
A. Lieberman (1971)



This paper is referenced by
10.1002/micr.30133
To reverse or not to reverse? A systematic review of autograft polarity on functional outcomes following peripheral nerve repair surgery
S. E. Roberts (2017)
10.1007/978-981-10-1061-3_1
The History of Telocyte Discovery and Understanding.
J. Wang (2016)
10.1080/01616412.2018.1504157
Thymoquinone protects DRG neurons from axotomy-induced cell death
R. Üstün (2018)
10.1093/milmed/usz360
Diffusion Tensor Tractrography Visualizes Partial Nerve Laceration Severity as Early as 1 Week After Surgical Repair in a Rat Model Ex Vivo.
Angel F. Farinas (2020)
10.1016/j.jep.2020.113063
Augmented Buyang Huanwu Decoction facilitates axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve transection through the regulation of inflammatory cytokine production.
Ki-Joong Kim (2020)
10.12965/jer.19.328126.063
Effects of two intensities of treadmill exercise on neuromuscular recovery after median nerve crush injury in Wistar rats
M. C. Ferreira (2019)
10.1007/978-3-030-06217-0_9-1
Appropriate Animal Models for Translational Nerve Research
K. Haastert-Talini (2020)
10.1002/term.2945
The advances in nerve tissue engineering: From fabrication of nerve conduit to in vivo nerve regeneration assays
M. Jahromi (2019)
10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.06.016
The Utilization of Nerve Transfer for Reestablishing Shoulder Function in the Setting of Acute Flaccid Myelitis: A Single-Institution Review.
Taylor M Paziuk (2020)
Enhancement of peripheral nerve regeneration with controlled local release of Tacrolimus (FK506)
Kasra Tajdaran (2018)
Title : The Extracellular Environment of the CNS : Influence on Plasticity , Sprouting , and Axonal Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury
S. Quraishe (2018)
10.1055/s-0040-1716870
Histological Assessment of Wallerian Degeneration of the Rat Tibial Nerve Following Crush and Transection Injuries.
J. Kerns (2020)
10.1007/s13311-020-00852-3
Pharmacological BACE Inhibition Improves Axonal Regeneration in Nerve Injury and Disease Models
C. Tallon (2020)
10.1038/s41401-019-0338-1
Growth factors-based therapeutic strategies and their underlying signaling mechanisms for peripheral nerve regeneration
R. Li (2020)
10.4103/1673-5374.217319
Beta secretase activity in peripheral nerve regeneration
C. Tallon (2017)
10.3389/fncel.2019.00280
A Novel Experimental Model to Determine the Axon-Promoting Effects of Grafted Cells After Peripheral Nerve Injury
T. Endo (2019)
10.1002/micr.30713
A meta‐analysis of functional outcomes in rat sciatic nerve injury models
Anthony Deleonibus (2021)
10.1242/dmm.026518
Recovery of erectile function comparing autologous nerve grafts, unseeded conduits, Schwann-cell-seeded guidance tubes and GDNF-overexpressing Schwann cell grafts
F. May (2016)
10.7912/C2VP50
Immunoregulation of the central response to peripheral nerve injury: motoneuron survival and relevance to ALS
D. O. Setter (2017)
10.1080/10833196.2017.1368967
Effectiveness of electrical stimulation for rehabilitation of facial nerve paralysis
Katie A Fargher (2017)
10.1007/s10439-020-02560-7
Efficacy of Large Groove Texture on Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration In Vivo Using Polyacrylonitrile Nerve Conduits
Zonghuan Wang (2020)
10.3791/59767
Functional and Physiological Methods of Evaluating Median Nerve Regeneration in the Rat.
D. Casal (2020)
10.1007/s12017-017-8450-1
Functional and Molecular Characterization of a Novel Traumatic Peripheral Nerve–Muscle Injury Model
R. Wanner (2017)
10.1186/s13643-020-01388-5
Efficacy of tubing technique with biomaterials compared to direct coaptation technique after peripheral neurotmesis in nerve healing and return to functionality in young adult rats: a systematic review protocol
A. C. D. L. Brito (2020)
10.1016/j.brainres.2016.09.021
Olfactory ensheathing glia cell therapy and tubular conduit enhance nerve regeneration after mouse sciatic nerve transection
C. Goulart (2016)
10.1590/s0102-865020190030000004
Does the type of electrode affect the electromyoneurographic parameters in rats? 1
Danusa Neves Somensi (2019)
10.3389/fncel.2019.00182
Spatiotemporal Differences in Gene Expression Between Motor and Sensory Autografts and Their Effect on Femoral Nerve Regeneration in the Rat
D. Hercher (2019)
10.3389/fncel.2018.00511
Long-Term Denervated Rat Schwann Cells Retain Their Capacity to Proliferate and to Myelinate Axons in vitro
T. Gordon (2019)
10.3390/ijms21228652
Peripheral Nerve Regeneration and Muscle Reinnervation
T. Gordon (2020)
10.1155/2018/2952386
The Extracellular Environment of the CNS: Influence on Plasticity, Sprouting, and Axonal Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury
S. Quraishe (2018)
10.1016/j.expneurol.2018.08.014
Matrices, scaffolds, and carriers for protein and molecule delivery in peripheral nerve regeneration
Kasra Tajdaran (2019)
10.1016/j.apmt.2019.100468
Anisotropic ridge/groove microstructure for regulating morphology and biological function of Schwann cells
Guicai Li (2020)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar