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Management Of Bile Duct Leaks.

M. Pioche, T. Ponchon
Published 2013 · Medicine

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The cause of bile duct leaks can be either iatrogenic or more rarely, traumatic. The most common cause is related to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. While surgical repair has been the standard for many years, management in these often morbid and complex situations must currently be multidisciplinary incorporating the talents of interventional radiologists and endoscopists. Based on the literature and in particular the recent recommendations of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), this review aims to update the management strategy. The incidence of these complications decreases with surgeon experience attesting to the value of training to prevent these injuries. Bile duct injuries must be categorized and their mapping detailed by magnetic resonance cholangiography MRCP or endoscopic cholangiography (ERCP) when endoscopic therapy is considered. Endoscopic management should be preferred in the absence of complete circumferential interruption of the common bile duct. The ESGE recommends insertion of a plastic stent for 4 to 8 weeks without routine sphincterotomy. For complete circumferential injuries, hepaticojejunostomy is usually necessary. In conclusion, adequate training of surgeons is essential for prevention since the incidence of bile duct injury decreases with experience. Faced with a bile duct injury, a multidisciplinary team approach, involving radiologists, endoscopists and surgeons improves patient outcome.
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