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Ultrasmall Inorganic Nanoparticles: State-of-the-art And Perspectives For Biomedical Applications.

K. Zarschler, L. Rocks, Nadia Licciardello, L. Boselli, E. Polo, Karina Pombo Garcia, L. De Cola, Holger Stephan, Kenneth A. Dawson
Published 2016 · Materials Science, Medicine

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Ultrasmall nanoparticulate materials with core sizes in the 1-3nm range bridge the gap between single molecules and classical, larger-sized nanomaterials, not only in terms of spatial dimension, but also as regards physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Due to these unique properties, ultrasmall nanoparticles appear to be promising materials for nanomedicinal applications. This review overviews the different synthetic methods of inorganic ultrasmall nanoparticles as well as their properties, characterization, surface modification and toxicity. We moreover summarize the current state of knowledge regarding pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and targeting of nanoscale materials. Aside from addressing the issue of biomolecular corona formation and elaborating on the interactions of ultrasmall nanoparticles with individual cells, we discuss the potential diagnostic, therapeutic and theranostic applications of ultrasmall nanoparticles in the emerging field of nanomedicine in the final part of this review.
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