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Harnessing Nanoparticles For The Efficient Delivery Of The CRISPR/Cas9 System

H. Rahimi, Marziyeh Salehiabar, Jalil Charmi, M. Barsbay, Mohammadreza Ghaffarlou, Mahdi Roohi Razlighi, S. Davaran, R. Khalilov, M. Sugiyama, H. Nosrati, Saeed Kaboli, H. Danafar, T. Webster
Published 2020 · Computer Science

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Abstract Exploiting bacterial DNA-acting enzymes and expanding their repertoire for genome engineering have been major technological and conceptual advances in molecular biology over the last decade. The CRISPR-Cas9 system offers many attractive superiorities, such as multiplexing, high precision, low cost, and simplicity compared to other strategies/systems/approaches known to date for gene editing. The efficient co-delivery of Cas9 and single guide RNA(s) into a desired cell and subsequent correct targeting of selected genomic fragment(s) are among the most critical and determining issues for CRISPR-Cas9-based genome engineering. CRISPR/Cas9 components can be transported into target cells via various delivery methods, including physical methods (such as electroporation and microinjection) as well as viral and non-viral methods. Physical and viral methods, with all their privileges, still suffer from disadvantages including induction of immune responses, cell damage, lack of high specificity, etc. We are witnessing a remarkable increase in the employment of nanomaterials as non-viral carriers for the delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Nanoparticles have so far presented numerous advantages such as ease of synthesis, high efficiency, low cost, size tunability, non-mutagenicity, non-immunogenicity, etc. with regard to the delivery of CRISPR/Cas9. Here, we will review the recent progress in the delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 system components via nanomaterials and outline future challenges.
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