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Edible Lipid Nanoparticles: Digestion, Absorption, And Potential Toxicity.

D. J. Mcclements
Published 2013 · Chemistry, Medicine

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Food-grade nanoemulsions are being increasingly used in the food and beverage industry to encapsulate, protect, and deliver hydrophobic functional components, such as oil-soluble flavors, colors, preservatives, vitamins, and nutraceuticals. These nanoemulsions contain lipid nanoparticles (radius <100 nm) whose physicochemical characteristics (e.g., composition, dimensions, structure, charge, and physical state) can be controlled by selection of appropriate ingredients and fabrication techniques. Nanoemulsions have a number of potential advantages over conventional emulsions for applications within the food industry: higher stability to particle aggregation and gravitational separation; higher optical transparency; and, increased bioavailability of encapsulated components. On the other hand, there are also some risks associated with consumption of lipid nanoparticles that should be considered before they are widely utilized, such as their ability to alter the fate of bioactive components within the gastrointestinal tract and the potential toxicity of some of the components used in their fabrication (e.g., surfactants and organic solvents). This article provides an overview of the current status of the biological fate and potential toxicity of food-grade lipid nanoparticles suitable for utilization within the food and beverage industry.
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