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Sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced Flk-1 Transactivation Stimulates Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Proliferation Through S1P1/S1P3-dependent β-arrestin/c-Src Pathways.

J. M. Ryu, Young Bin Baek, Myung Sun Shin, Ji Hoon Park, Soo-hyun Park, J. Lee, H. Han
Published 2014 · Biology, Medicine

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Although recent findings showed that the bioactive lipid metabolites can regulate the ES cell functions, the physiological relevance of interaction between sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and Flk-1 and its related signaling molecules are not yet clear in ES cell proliferation. In the present study, S1P1-5 receptors were expressed in mouse ES cells and S1P increased S1P1-3 receptor expression level. S1P treatment stimulated the cellular proliferation in S1P1/3-dependent manner, located in lipid rafts. In response to S1P, β-arrestin was recruited to S1P1/3 receptor and c-Src was activated. S1P also increased the binding of S1P1/3 receptor with Flk-1. Similar to responses for VEGF, S1P increased Flk-1 phosphorylation, which was blocked by β-arrestin siRNA, and PP2, but not by VEGF-A164 antibody or VEGF siRNA. In addition, S1P induced VEGF expression and VEGFR2 kinase inhibitor (SU1498) blocked the S1P-induced cellular proliferation. However, VEGF-A164 antibody or VEGF siRNA partially blocked S1P-induced cellular proliferation, suggesting that both VEGF-dependent Flk-1 activation and VEGF-independent Flk-1 activation are involved in S1P-induced ES cell proliferation. S1P and VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK and JNK were blocked by pretreatment with SU1498. Moreover, inhibition of ERK and JNK blocked S1P-induced cellular proliferation. In conclusion, S1P-elicited transactivation of Flk-1 mediated by S1P1/3-dependent β-arrestin/c-Src pathways stimulated mouse ES cell proliferation.
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